To what extent were Native Americans a persecuted minority in the years from 1865-1992.

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  • To what extent were Native Americans a persecuted minority in the years from 1865-1992.
    • The killing of the buffalo
      • This was done to try and subdue them.
        • Cutting off their whole way of life would make them more "compliant"
        • They were forced to adapt to the changing environment
          • Encouraging the governments aim of assimilation.
            • Dawes Act of 1887
              • Start of the reservations
                • 133,417 reservation indians by 1890
                  • Against their will
                  • Lost their right to tribal laws, which further eroded their culture. Now subject to state laws.
                  • Army used to force indians into these zones and make sure they stayed there.
                • Assaulted their way of life even further.
                • Americans believed that it was their right to do this.
              • "allotted" packages of land to N/A's.
                • Assaulted their way of life even further.
    • Start of the reservations
      • 133,417 reservation indians by 1890
        • Against their will
        • Lost their right to tribal laws, which further eroded their culture. Now subject to state laws.
        • Army used to force indians into these zones and make sure they stayed there.
      • Americans believed that it was their right to do this.
  • The killing of the buffalo
    • This was done to try and subdue them.
      • Cutting off their whole way of life would make them more "compliant"
      • They were forced to adapt to the changing environment
        • Encouraging the governments aim of assimilation.
          • Dawes Act of 1887
            • "allotted" packages of land to N/A's.
    • Power of chiefs replaced by Indian Agent appointed by often discriminatory Indian bureau.
      • Although they weren't always that bad.
        • Great Sioux Reserve Signed with Fort Laramie in 1868
          • Provided ample land to the Great Sioux nation and was agreed that it wouldn't be changed.
      • This was repealed however in 1871 by congress and re-designated them into reservations.
        • Provided ample land to the Great Sioux nation and was agreed that it wouldn't be changed.
        • Further reduced after the Battle of the little big horn (general custorr) in 1876. There were only 6 small reservations by 1889..
      • "Manifest Destiny" Governor of Colorado claimed the Indian "savages" had no rights to the land.
        • This was due to the gold rush in the black hills that put pressure on congress.
          • This was repealed however in 1871 by congress and re-designated them into reservations.
            • Further reduced after the Battle of the little big horn (general custorr) in 1876. There were only 6 small reservations by 1889..
        • The Reservations did work for the Navajo tribe extremely well with a range of successful agricultural activities taking place.
          • However, this was definitely not the case for most reservations where life was harsh and often hopeless.
        • However, this was definitely not the case for most reservations where life was harsh and often hopeless.
        • Definition of persecution: hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of race or political or religious
          • To what extent were Native Americans a persecuted minority in the years from 1865-1992.
          • Only until the 1930's when everything changed TURNING POINT!
            • Native American New Deal under Roosevelt
              • Indian Reorganisation Act ( 1934).
                • Reversed government policy of assimilation and  gave them rights to preserve their culture and religion.
              • John Collier commissioner of Indian affairs.
            • WW2 a further turning point?
              • over 100,000 left the reservations to work in defence jobs during the war.
                • However, many were FORCED back to reservations due to prejudice and discrimination after the war.
              • National congress of American Indians set-up after the war.
              • Many used as radio operators during war due to the complication of their language.
          • Forced assimilation was not necessarily persecution according to the legal definition.
            • Although the way in which they (the US government) conducted this assimilation definitely was.
              • N/A's were often violently forced to assimilate e.g. Boarding Schools - that is persecution.
            • Definition of persecution: hostility and ill-treatment, especially because of race or political or religious
            • No ;longer the forceful and violent persecution seen before the 1900's.
              • Indian Reorganisation Act ( 1934).
                • Reversed government policy of assimilation and  gave them rights to preserve their culture and religion.
            • Able to invoke several changes in the NA quality of life.
              • John Collier commissioner of Indian affairs.
              • Native Americans more involved in BIA
              • Political rights to NA's
              • NA women encouraged to aspire to higher education.
                • Gladys Tantaquidgeon

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