To what extent did the economy and government of Russia change in the years 1881-1914?

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  • To what extent did the economy and government of Russia change in the years 1881-1914?
    • Alexander III
      • Nikolai Bunge (1881-1887)
        • Created the peasant land bank
          • Designed to encourage peasants to expand their land.
          • Was to small to be effective.
      • Ivan Vyshnegradsky (1887-1892)
        • Raised money for industrialisation.
          • Raised taxes and got foreign investment.
          • Small railway network
          • Heavy industry in Ukraine
          • Oil production in Baku.
        • Exported lots of grain to finance policies despite a famine.
    • Sergei Witte (1892-1903)
      • Most important finance minister
      • Railways
        • Trans-Siberian railway.
          • To open up the eastern empire.
          • Exploit Russia's natural resources.
          • Linked western cities
          • Only partially finished.
        • Linked oil refineries in Baku to the Black Sea.
          • Massive increases in production 10 fold
        • Stimulated growth of iron and coal industry.
          • Massive increases in production.
      • Foreign investment
        • Put the rouble on the gold standard
          • Encouraged foreign investors especially France and Belgium.
            • Foreign investment in 1890 was 200million roubles by 1900 it was 900million.
      • Economy grew 8% in a year.
      • Had to increase taxes to fund industrialisation.
        • Peasants didn't spend money on consumer goods.
          • Didn't improve agriculture.
    • Industry in other countries was by middle classes.
      • Russia didn't have a large one.
        • Grew slowly due to sate control of industry.
    • Stolypin
      • Ruthless attitude to unrest.
        • New court system where offenders were rapidly tried.
        • Made Tsarism more unpopular.
      • Agricultural reforms.
        • Each peasants had unconditional right to land(1906)
        • Peasants could have their own landholding.
          • Only 25% could afford it.
        • Agricultural education
          • Little change in agricultural technique.
        • Sold land to the peasant land bank for resale.
        • Scrapped redemption payments
      • Emigration to Siberia
        • Encouraged migration to less dense areas to increase production.
        • Trans-Siberian railway helped.
        • Offered cheap land and tax exemptions.
        • 3 million emigrated.
      • Wasn't given enough time
        • Assassinated in 1911
        • WW1 broke out in1914.
    • Political reforms.
      • October manifesto
        • Freedom of speech, religion, press
        • An elected Duma that had actual authority.
          • Duma had to approve Tsars laws
        • A second manifesto promised abolition of redemption payments.
        • Strikes were called off
        • Demonstration in favour of the Tsar.
        • St Petersburg Soviet was dissolved.
      • Fundamental law (1906)
        • Tsar had supreme autocratic power.
        • Broke promises.
        • Tsar could govern by issuing decrees (article 87)
        • A council of state made up of Tsarist sympathisers.
        • Laws had to be approved by the council of state and Tsar.
          • Made reform unlikely
        • Ministers were appointed by the Tsar.

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