French Wars- To what extent was Nelson the main contributor to victory at sea?

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  • To what extent was Nelson the main contributor to victory at sea?
    • Nelson
      • Nile
        • Trapped French ships between the British
        • Rapid destruction as French guns faced the sea
        • Weakened French navy
        • Boosted morale
        • Trapped Napoleon in Egypt which prevented him from commanding
          • Gave more time for the British to reinforce the Med.
      • Tactics
        • Sailed with ships already in formation
        • Compromised with officers
        • Planned battles simply and allowed initiative
        • Increased rations and shore leave
        • Fought on the deck with the men to increase morale
        • Used a 3-line strategy with an initial crushing force and two supporting lines
      • Trafalgar
        • No British ships destroyed
        • Died in battle
        • No more large naval battles for remainder of wars
      • Copenhagen
        • Disobeyed orders because he knew he could win
      • Cape St Vincent
        • Acted on initiative without orders
        • Stopped Spanish ships escaping
        • Boarded one ship using the other as a bridge
    • Boards of Victualling, Ordnance, and Transport
      • Victualling
        • Food for the men meant they were stronger and healthier
          • Better fighting force for gunnery and boarding
        • Kept men alive
          • More food meant better morale
          • Larger crews for higher fire rate and more effective boarding
      • Ordnance
        • Provided weapons, ammo and gunpowder to allow success in naval battles and boarding parties
        • Tested gunpowder and encouraged competition in providers
          • Britain had a greater range of fire and could cause more damage than the French
      • Transport
        • Allowed men to receive goods produced by the other boards
    • Economy
      • East India Company
        • Provided access to increased trade so more exports and more money
          • Money for war production, workers, raw materials
        • Provided imported raw materials such as saltpetre for gunpowder
        • Allowed high import tariffs on tea, so more money
        • Navy protected the ships in return for trade, so the navy essentially helped to finance itself- allowed more technology and reform
      • Loans and taxes
        • Money for war production, workers, raw materials
        • Money for research and development of new technology
          • New technology increases factory efficiency and brings more money due to increased exports
          • New technology causes increased naval efficiency and a higher chance of success
      • Golden Cavalry of St George
        • Money given to other allied countries to aid the war effort at sea and equip their navies with better technology
    • Technology
      • Spinning Jennies
        • Increased cloth production
          • Increased exports so more money
      • Block mills
        • Rapid block production
          • Decreased time in dry dock due to rapid replacement
            • Increased  number of ships in battle, so more chance of winning
      • Steam power
        • Less time in dry dock because of rapid dock drainage with steam pumps
          • Increased  number of ships in battle, so more chance of winning
        • Increased industrial output of factories
          • Increased munitions production
          • Increased exports so more money
      • Coppering
        • Expensive
          • France could not afford it on as large a scale
        • Reduced number of barnacles and ship worm
          • Reduced drag
            • Faster ships for faster responses and successful pursuits
          • Less time in dry dock needed to scrape hull
            • More ships at sea for longer
        • Gunlocks
          • Sent a charge directly into the barrel
            • Increased rate of fire
          • Faster than French linstocks.
          • Sometimes called flintlocks
        • Carronades
          • Allowed greater destruction of enemy ships before boarding
          • More accurate than broadsides

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