Education and Reform in Britain

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • To what extent has educational reform led to widening opportunity?
    • 1918 'Fisher' Education Act
      • Increased school leaving age to 14.
      • Provided nursery schools for toddlers.
      • Made 'continuation schools' for students over 14 to pursue education for 1 day a week.
        • Few were produced due to lack of funding under 'Geddes Axe' (cut govt spending) in '22.
          • Provided nursery schools for toddlers.
      • Scrapped fees for all elementary education.
      • Punished firms who employed school-age children.
      • Provided free, compulsory health checks for secondary school pupils.
    • 1926 Hadow Report
      • Elementary schools to be replaced with primary schools for pupils aged 5-11
      • tri-partite system for those 11-15. Grammar (academics), technical (practical trade), and Moderns (the rest)
      • Nothing was done on the report.
      • LEAs tried to update to 'modern' schools, but amount of WC kids in secondary education was static.
    • 1944 'Butler' Education Act
      • School leaving age raised to 15 in '47.
      • Secondary education to be made free and universally available.
      • (LEAs made to be directed and controlled by a new Ministry of Education)
      • 11-plus exam determined which school you went to.
        • Secondary Technical- specialised in mechanical and technical education.
          • Very few established due to expense/
        • Secondary Modern gave a general education to pupil.
          • 70% of pupils went to such schools in the '50s.
        • Grammar schools
          • Highly academic, focused on English Literature, 'classics', and pure Maths.
          • 20% of pupils went to Grammar schools in the '50s.
      • Due to lack of technical schools, 11+ was seen as a pass/fail test, condemning the failures to a second-class education.
      • Gender divides there in both schools. Secondary: Mothercraft for girls and woodwork for boys.    Grammar- girls focus of languages/arts as opposed to Maths and Science.
    • Crosland Circular (1965)
      • '64, 10% of pupils went to comprehensive schools, which arrived due to tripartite debate.
      • Anthony Crosland's Circular 10/65
        • Called for Universal comprehensive education.
        • Wanted to eliminate separatism in secondary education.
        • Many LEAs looked as if they may ignore the Circular.
        • '66- government said that LEAs would only gain funding if they adopted comprehensive reform.
        • Many LEAs, thus, adopted comprehensive reform.
      • '70s
        • The Conservative government removed this, but did little to halt growing reform.
        • Many teachers and middle-class parents pushed for comprehensive reform.
        • Labour's '76 Government reintroduced comprehensiveness and removed funding from direct grant schools.
        • '79- 150 Grammar Schools left. 33% of students were educated at comprehensive schools in '70. Increased to 62% by '74 and 90% by '79.
    • 1967 Plowden Report.
      • Large programme of nursery school building.
      • More project-based work was carried out at primary schools, rather than teacher-led activities
      • There was a focus on learning through play in early years teaching, because of the acceptance that all children learn at a diferent pace.
      • Teaching of punctuation and grammar was seen as a hindrance to creativity and a threat to progress.
      • Inner London Education Authority took really relaxed approach.
        • Teachers called by first name
        • No school uniform.
        • Kids could choose which classes to attend, and watch TV if they didn't feel like it.
      • Many parents became concerned with the relaxed approach.
    • Other educational reforms causing progress.
      • Top 20% of students took O-levels until the CSE was introduced in '65.
        • Many more students now left with qualification.
      • '73 Education (Work Experience) Act
        • Raised leaving age to 16.
        • Set up work experience in place of lessons for final-year students.
        • More students going to Uni due to increased funding.
    • Universities
      • Before the Robbins Committee Report
        • '20-'50, proportion of university costs met by student fees fell from 1/3 to under 1'8.
        • Number of students in unis increased from 20,000 in 1900 to 38,000 in '38
        • Oxford and Cambridge educated 22% of all students in '39
        • University of London rose from 13,000 in '39 to 113,000 in '62
          • After the Robbins Committee Report (1960)
            • Govt. funding for Unis increased from £1m in 1919 to over £80m in 1962.
            • Number of students increased to 113,000 in '62.
            • Robbins said the key areas for concern were a lack of funding and the number of places available for prospective students.
            • He recommended a universal nation grant to be provided to all uni students.
            • He also recommended a large increase in state funding to enable thr growth of uni places.
            • '62-'70, universities increased from 22 to 46.
              • York + Lancaster known as 'plate-glass' unis due to their unique architectural style.
            • Council for National Academic Awards enabled non-unis to award degrees.
              • Opened the Open University in '69, which was aimed at adults.
            • 34 Tech colleges elevated to polytechnics.
              • However, the y focused on vocational courses and were seen as inferior.
            • Between '70 and '83, no. of students increased from 185,000 (31% female) to 237,000 (42% female)
            • Number of students in higher education remained much lower than other industrial nation.
            • Greater Social Mobility due to higher wages being able to be demanded.
        • Smaller University college gained independence after WWII. These included:
          • Reading ('26)
          • Nottingham, Southampton and Exeter (1948-57)
        • Proportion of 18-21 year olds in uni education increased from 0.8% to 4% between 1900 and 1962.
        • '61-- only 13% of Oxbridge students were female, and the number of WC students there were tiny.
      • After the Robbins Committee Report (1960)
        • Govt. funding for Unis increased from £1m in 1919 to over £80m in 1962.
        • Number of students increased to 113,000 in '62.
        • Robbins said the key areas for concern were a lack of funding and the number of places available for prospective students.
        • He recommended a universal nation grant to be provided to all uni students.
        • He also recommended a large increase in state funding to enable thr growth of uni places.
        • '62-'70, universities increased from 22 to 46.
          • York + Lancaster known as 'plate-glass' unis due to their unique architectural style.
        • Council for National Academic Awards enabled non-unis to award degrees.
          • Opened the Open University in '69, which was aimed at adults.
        • 34 Tech colleges elevated to polytechnics.
          • However, the y focused on vocational courses and were seen as inferior.
        • Between '70 and '83, no. of students increased from 185,000 (31% female) to 237,000 (42% female)
        • Number of students in higher education remained much lower than other industrial nation.
        • Greater Social Mobility due to higher wages being able to be demanded.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Modern Britain - 19th century onwards resources »