Tissues in the lungs - Structure

  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 11-04-16 11:39
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  • Tissues in the lungs:
    • Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles are airways that allow passage of air into the lungs and out again.
    • To be effective, the airways must:
      • Larger airways must be large enough to allow sufficient air to flow without obstruction.
      • Must DIVIDE into smaller airways to deliver air to all the alveoli.
      • Airways must be STRONG enough to prevent them from collapsing when air pressure inside is low during inhalation.
      • Must be FLEXIBLE to allow movement.
      • Must be able to STRETCH and RECOIL.
    • Trachea and bronchi:
      • Have a similar structure. Only differ in SIZE. Bronchi are NARROWER than the trachea.
      • Both have relatively THICK WALLS that have several layers of tissue.
      • Much of the wall consists of CARTILAGE.
      • Cartilage is in the form of INCOMPLETE RINGS/C-rings in the TRACHEA, but  is LESS REGULAR in the bronchi.
      • On inside surface of cartilage is a layer of GLANDULAR TISSUE, CONNECTIVE tissue, ELASTIC FIBRES, SMOOTH MUSCLE and BLOOD VESSELS. Often called the LOOSE TISSUE.
      • Inner lining is an EPITHELIUM layer that has 2 types of cell. Most cells have CILIA known as CILIATED EPITHELIUM. Among these ciliated cells are GOBLET CELLS.
    • Bronchioles:
      • Bronchioles are much NARROWER than the bronchi.
      • Larger bronchioles may have some CARTILAGE, but smaller ones have NO cartilage.
      • Wall is mostly made of SMOOTH MUSCLE and ELASTIC FIBRES.
      • Smallest bronchioles have CLUSTERS of ALVEOLI at their ends.


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