# Thermal physics

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• Thermal Physics
• Molecular Models
• Solid
• Particles arranged in regular repeating pattern
• Particles vibrate in fixed positions
• Gas
• Particles arranged randomly and very far apart
• Moving around randomly in all directions
• Liquid
• Particles arranged randomly
• Particles close together vibrating but able to move apart from eachother
• Evaporation and Boiling
• Evaporation is particles moving faster at the surface and escape
• Boiling is when a change of state occurs
• Boyle's Law
• The variation of volume of a gas with applied pressure
• BOYLES LAW IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO FACTORS --PRESSURE, VOLUME OR TEMPERATURE
• P1 X P2 =   P2 + V2
• p1 & v1 = starting pressure and vloume
• p2 & v2 = final pressure and volume
• Charles' Law
• volume1 = volume2 x temperature1 / temperature2
• Where volume1 and temperature1 are the initial temperature and volume, and volume2 and temperature2 are the final volume and temperature.
• volume is measured in metres cubed (m3) and temperature in Kelvin (K).
• Thermal Expansion
• In solids
• Materials change their sixe when subject to temperature change while pressure Is constant
• The particles vibrate and move more vigorously as energy is given to them by heat
• In gases
• When the particles in a gas are heated they gain kinetic energy so move faster
• with the gas moving faster it takes up more space if the gas is free to expand it will
• In liquids
• The volume of liquid increases as a result of molecules aing
• Specific Heat Capacity
• The SPC of a material is the energy required to raised 1KG of the material by 1C
• SPC= ENERGY TRANSFERRED/ (MASS X TEMPERTURE)
• Brownian Motion
• A random irregular movement of particles
• Caused by collisions with particles with smaller invisible particles