Thermal physics

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  • Thermal Physics
    • Molecular Models
      • Solid
        • Particles arranged in regular repeating pattern
          • Particles vibrate in fixed positions
      • Gas
        • Particles arranged randomly and very far apart
          • Moving around randomly in all directions
      • Liquid
        • Particles arranged randomly
          • Particles close together vibrating but able to move apart from eachother
    • Evaporation and Boiling
      • Evaporation is particles moving faster at the surface and escape
      • Boiling is when a change of state occurs
    • Boyle's Law
      • The variation of volume of a gas with applied pressure
      • BOYLES LAW IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO FACTORS --PRESSURE, VOLUME OR TEMPERATURE
      • P1 X P2 =   P2 + V2
        • p1 & v1 = starting pressure and vloume
        • p2 & v2 = final pressure and volume
    • Charles' Law
      • volume1 = volume2 x temperature1 / temperature2
        • Where volume1 and temperature1 are the initial temperature and volume, and volume2 and temperature2 are the final volume and temperature.
        • volume is measured in metres cubed (m3) and temperature in Kelvin (K).
    • Thermal Expansion
      • In solids
        • Materials change their sixe when subject to temperature change while pressure Is constant
          • The particles vibrate and move more vigorously as energy is given to them by heat
      • In gases
        • When the particles in a gas are heated they gain kinetic energy so move faster
          • with the gas moving faster it takes up more space if the gas is free to expand it will
      • In liquids
        • The volume of liquid increases as a result of molecules aing
    • Specific Heat Capacity
      • The SPC of a material is the energy required to raised 1KG of the material by 1C
      • SPC= ENERGY TRANSFERRED/ (MASS X TEMPERTURE)
    • Brownian Motion
      • A random irregular movement of particles
        • Caused by collisions with particles with smaller invisible particles

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