Thermal Energy

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  • Created by: Opugh
  • Created on: 18-05-14 14:31
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  • Thermal Energy
    • Temperature - average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
      • Absolute Zero - when all internal kinetic energy has been removed
    • Heat
      • Heat transfer
        • Collisions cause exchange in energy
        • More frequent collisions in hotter part
        • Fewer collsions in cooler part
        • When collide energy is shared equally - heat is distributed
      • Specific Heat Capacity
        • Energy needed to raise the temperature of 1kg by 1 degree
        • E = mc theta
    • Internal Energy
      • Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy
        • Potential energy is from the bonds between molecules
      • Different molecules have different Kinetic and Potential energies
        • Maxwell - Boltzmann Distribution
          • No molecules with zero energy
          • Only a few molecules have high energies
          • No maximum energy a molecule can have
          • As temperature increases peak moves down and to right
      • Speed of molecules
        • Most probable speed - from M-B graph
        • Root mean squared speed
          • Associated with average KE
      • Kinetic Energy
        • Proportional to absolute temperature of gas
          • 3/2 kT = 1/2 m c^2
            • So at absolute zero molecules are stationary
    • Gas Laws
      • Boyles's Law
        • For a constant mass of gas at a constant temperature, volume is inversely proportional to pressure
      • Charles' Law
        • For a constant mass at a constant pressure T is proprtional to V
      • Pressure Law
        • For a constant mass at a constant V, P is proportional to T
    • Ideal gases
      • Zero size
      • Identical
      • Collide perfectly elastically
      • Exert no force on other molecules exept in collisions
      • Enough molecules to apply statistics

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