Thermal Physics

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  • Thermal Physics
    • Triple point - all three phases coexist in thermal equilibrium
      • Thermal Equilibrium
        • Zeroth Law
          • Body A & body B are thermal equilibrium with body C, A & B must be thermal equilibrium
        • hotter object transfers thermal energy to colder object, both have the same balanced temperature
      • One specific temperature and pressure
    • SHC
      • Energy required per unit mass to change the temperature by 1K or 1°C
        • E = mc?Ø
          • Energy transferred from heater to  substance - E= IVt
      • Specific Latent Heat L=E/m
        • Energy require to change phase per unit mass at constant T
        • 2. Specific latent heat of vaporisation (LIQUID TO GAS) E=mLv
    • Density
      • Spacing between the particles affects the density of a substance.
        • Solids are generally most dense
    • Internal Energy
      • T increases the internal energy of a substance, KE will increase, faster moving particles withing substance
      • Sum of kinetic and potential energies of atoms or molecules within the substance
      • Changing phase
        • Solid to liquid
          • Internal energy increases, KE and temperature does not change, potential energy increases as bonds are broken
        • Once the substance has changed phase, T + KE increase
        • Boiling or melting point
          • While changing phase, energy transferred to the substance does not change its temperature
    • Brownian Motion
      • Elastic collisions between water molecules and pollen grains caused the pollen grains to move haphazardly.
    • Electrostatic Potential Energy
      • Solid
        • PE is lowest
        • Electrostatic forces is very large negative value
      • Liquid
        • Electrostatic forces between particles has a negative value
          • Negative value means energy is required to break bonds
            • Electrostatic forces is very large negative value
        • PE is higher
      • Gas
        • Zero as there is negligible electrical forces between particles
        • PE is highest
    • Temperature
      • Absolute zero
        • Internal energy is at its minimum, KE is zero, internal energy not zero as substance still have electrostatic forces between particles
      • Measured in kelvins, k
        • T(K) = T(°C) + 273
        • Absolute scale or thermodynamic scale


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