LCW Liberalism Hodg

  • Created by: Eyesight
  • Created on: 16-05-18 08:34
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  • Liberalism
    • John Locke
      • 1690- Two treaties of government
        • Based on consent, from below - social contract theory
          • Natural rights and natural laws
            • All are born equal
              • Based on reason
              • Pre-dates the enlightenment
      • Society, state and government all based on a voluntary agreement/ contract
        • Government should be limited
      • Life, liberty and property. - rights
    • J. S. Mill
    • Individualism + Freedom = liberty
      • Rational= deserving of economic, social and political freedoms
        • Rationalism = englightenment
          • 18th century - age of reason
          • Rational reason and logic
            • Individual freedom, representative democracy, tolerance and international peace and harmony
            • Knowledge flows from reason and logic. rather than tradition, faith and superstition/ church, custom.
    • Human Nature
      • Optimistic but seeking
    • Foundational equality- equal moral worth - equal rights before the law
    • Views on equality
      • Foundational
        • Opportunity
          • Formal
      • All reject equality of outcome (socialism)
      • Believe in meritocracy - hierarchy on peoples efforts
    • Classical liberlism
      • Older strand - rediscovered in economic format with Thatcher -pre 1860
      • Economy -Adam smith, wealth of nations - 1790s
        • Meritocratic
          • Inequality is seen as an incentive
        • The invisible hand + dead hand
  • 1700's
    • Individuals free exept harming others- harm principle
      • Ideas different to own tolerated
      • J. S. Mill
  • Government
    • 'Necessary evil' to protect one another from self serving individuals
    • Liberalism
      • John Locke
        • 1690- Two treaties of government
          • Based on consent, from below - social contract theory
            • Natural rights and natural laws
              • All are born equal
                • Based on reason
                • Pre-dates the enlightenment
        • Society, state and government all based on a voluntary agreement/ contract
          • Government should be limited
        • Life, liberty and property. - rights
      • Individualism + Freedom = liberty
        • Rational= deserving of economic, social and political freedoms
          • Rationalism = englightenment
            • 18th century - age of reason
            • Rational reason and logic
              • Individual freedom, representative democracy, tolerance and international peace and harmony
              • Knowledge flows from reason and logic. rather than tradition, faith and superstition/ church, custom.
      • Human Nature
        • Optimistic but seeking
      • Foundational equality- equal moral worth - equal rights before the law
      • Views on equality
        • Foundational
          • Opportunity
            • Formal
        • All reject equality of outcome (socialism)
        • Believe in meritocracy - hierarchy on peoples efforts
      • Classical liberlism
        • Older strand - rediscovered in economic format with Thatcher -pre 1860
        • Economy -Adam smith, wealth of nations - 1790s
          • Meritocratic
            • Inequality is seen as an incentive
          • The invisible hand + dead hand
  • Potentially evil can embody cohersive and oppressive state power against the indivudal
    • Acton
    • Government
      • 'Necessary evil' to protect one another from self serving individuals
    • Elective dictatorship -lord halshom
      • lead to two nations
    • Tyranny of the majority -51%
  • Limit government
    • Separation of power
      • Legislature, Executive, Judiciary
    • Pluralism
      • Diverse and competing power groups
    • Private proerty
      • economic wealth should not be monopolised, by the state or few rich individuals
    • Decentralisation - power as close to the people as possible
      • Equal oppertunities
      • Open government- freedom of information act
  • Bicameralism
    • Two houses
    • Limit government
      • Separation of power
        • Legislature, Executive, Judiciary
      • Pluralism
        • Diverse and competing power groups
      • Private proerty
        • economic wealth should not be monopolised, by the state or few rich individuals
      • Decentralisation - power as close to the people as possible
        • Equal oppertunities
        • Open government- freedom of information act
    • Checks and balances
  • Negative freedom - home, family and personal morality (JSMills)
    • Tolerance - Voltaire
    • Jefferson - best that governs least
      • Night-watchman state -locke
    • Modern liberalism
      • Disreali Conservatives - T.H Green
      • T. H Green -state help and intervention where necessary in order to allow self fulfilment
        • Positive freedom- state intervention - freedom to- state more empowered- interventionist role in people lives - mixed economy/ Bill of Rights
      • Economy
        • rejects total free market - mixed economy - enabling state - education, welfare, health
        • Beveridge - 1940s post war welfare - 5 giants - disease , want, ignorance, indolence, squalor - Developmental individualism
          • Hand up not hand out. not socialist cradle to grave
    • Still favour individual freedom and consitiution and representive governement - need more state invertvention in peoples lives - lack of equality of opportunity
      • Still mechanistic - himan natural rational - self interested- individual freedom- private property as a natural right
      • Modern liberalism
        • Disreali Conservatives - T.H Green
        • T. H Green -state help and intervention where necessary in order to allow self fulfilment
          • Positive freedom- state intervention - freedom to- state more empowered- interventionist role in people lives - mixed economy/ Bill of Rights
        • Economy
          • rejects total free market - mixed economy - enabling state - education, welfare, health
          • Beveridge - 1940s post war welfare - 5 giants - disease , want, ignorance, indolence, squalor - Developmental individualism
            • Hand up not hand out. not socialist cradle to grave
    • Critised negative freedom- survival of the fittest
      • Social justice
        • Economic efficency
          • Social harmony
    • John M. Keynes - borrowing money - public spending

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