Theories of education : interactionalism

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Theories of education: INTERACTIONALISM
    • Teacher expectation
      • HARGREAVES ET AL studied the way in which teachers classified new pupils.
        • On appearance.Comformity of discipline. Ability. Likeability. Relationships with other children. Personality. Level of devience.
        • 2) ELABORATION: hypothesis may be refined
        • 1) Teachers form a working hypothesis of what type of child each pupil is.
        • 3) STABILISATION: actions of a pupil will be evaluated on terms of what type of pupil they are.
      • BECKER: children from non-manual backgrounds were seen as the ideal student.Teachers had difficulty in dealing with working class children. Teachers labels become a master status
    • BALL'S study
      • Examines the organisation of a comprehensive school. Pupils were put into 1 of 3 bands according to their information provided by primary schools.
        • Ball found that for pupils of similar measured ability, those whos fathers were non-manual workers had the greatest chance of being place in a top band.
          • Ball identified the following effects of banding
            • 2) teachers had lower expectations of band 2 pupils
            • 1) Behaviour of band 2 pupils deteriorated
            • 3) They were directed towards practial subjects and lower level exams.
            • Ball describes setting and streaming as social barabaris. Seperation of children may lead middle class parents to consider their children as better than working class.
    • Labelling & self-fufilling prophecy
      • SELF FUFILLING PROPHECY THEORY argues that predictions made teachers will tend to come true.
        • The teachers interaction with pupils will be informed by their labelling of pupils
        • The teacher defines or labels pupils in a particular way
        • Pupils mayb respond accordingly making the labal come true and the prophecy fufilled.
      • ROSENTHAL & JACOBSON: selected a random sample of students. Told the teacher that their IQ would go up in a year. they tested and retested and there was great gains in IQ.
        • R & J clim that the teachers expectations signifficantly effect their pupils performance. Teachers encouragement and positive feedback created a self fufilling prophecy
      • CRITISISM: their study raises ethical concerns as they didnt know they were being experimented on.
        • FULLER: Not all pupils will live up to their label. Black girl study; people expected them to fail because they were black and female but they worked hard to prove they were to be successful.
    • Strengths
      • 2) It shows that educational experiences are not just determined by home background and IQ
      • 1) It is detailed on empirical evidence E.g primary data
      • 3) WOODS claims that the interactionalist approach has practical applications. Could help schools improve.
    • Weaknesses
      • 2) Do no pay attention to other factors within schools such as class sizes.
      • 1) Many interactionalists refer to class differences in education but fail to explain the origins of these differences.
      • 3) Interactionalists fail to account for factors outside of school which may influence their schooling


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »