theories of crime and deviance

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  • Created on: 28-11-12 16:40
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  • Theories of crime and deviance
    • subcultural theories
      • COHEN: status fustration and the reactive delinquent subculture
        • Cohen argues that working class youth believe in the success goals of mainstream culture but their experience of failure in education, living in deprived areas and having low job chances mean they have little oppurtunity to obatain these goals.
        • experience status frustration- and develop alternative set of values. ( a delinquent subculture)
          • revenge- get back at society that has denied them a status ( deviant acts and criminal acts)
        • evaluation
          • helps to explain working class delinquency as a group resoponse rather than on the individual. (builds on Mertons)
          • however he makes an assumption that young people develop delinquent values as a reaction to what they cant receive
            • young people couldnt generate delinquent subcultures seeking revenge and rejecting and reacting against mainstream goals as they never held them.
      • CLOWARD AND OHLIN: three working class delinquent subcultures
        • 1. criminal subcultures are characterised by utilitarian crimes, such as theft.
          • learning oppurtunity and job market- financial rewards.
        • 2. conflict subcultures emerge in socially disorganized areas where there is high rate of population turnover and a lack of social cohesion.
          • violoence, gang warfare, mugging and other street crime.
          • young people expressing their fustration and obtain success through peer group.
        • 3.  retreatist subcultures emerge among those lower class youth who are double failure, failed to succeed in both mainstream and crime subcultures. retreat to drug addiction and alcholism
        • evaluation
          • gives insight into why working class delinquency may take different forms in different social circumstances.
          • they exxagerate the difference between the three types of subculture, as there is overlap between them


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