Theories on Crime Prevention

  • Created by: ecotts
  • Created on: 03-04-18 16:52
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  • Theories on Crime Prevention
    • Right Realism
      • They focus on the specific location of crime and how individuals choose crime
        • Broken Window
          • If graffiti, vandalism and litter is not tackled there will be an increase in crimes
          • In order to prevent crime from happening police should crack down and have a zero tolerance policy
        • Rational Choice Theory
          • Potential offenders act rationally when the have an opportunity to commit
            • They way up the risks and benefits before actually committing crime
          • In order to prevent crime, there must be a decrease in opportunities, but an increase in risks
        • Routine Activity Theory
          • Crime happens as part of someones everyday activity
            • they have to have the opportunity and potential targets
          • In order to prevent crime, there must be an increase in capable guardians so there is a decrease in targets
        • Crime prevention methods
          • Situational Crime Prevention
            • It relies on reducing opportunities
            • Cornish and Clarke
              • Making the opportunitiesto commit harder could be developed by putting notices up
                • i.e CCTV or Beware of the Dog
          • Increased Social Control
            • Links to Hirsi's Control Theory
              • The strong the social bonds are within the family/ communities,it will promote conformity, decreasing crime
      • Criticisms
        • They don't address the wider social causes of crime like economy and social policies
        • Zero tolerance and high police presence is not effective as offenders will just divert there crime to somewhere else
    • Left Realism
      • they recognise that both offenders and victims of crime are found in disadvantage communities
        • High social exclusion
        • Marginality
      • Preventing Crime involves
        • Building community cohesion and strong communities to tackle and come up with solutions to crime
        • Tackling social deprivation and improving community facilities
        • Intensive parenting support helping the youth as this is where factors of crime are the greatest
      • Criticisms
        • Left realist are too soft on crime as they focus on the causes and downplay the role of the offender
          • the police are seen as extra controlling rather than tackling the crime
        • majority of those living in deprived areas do not turn to crime and they ignore white collar crimes which could have more serious effect
    • Post-modernism
      • there is a growing emphasis on private crime preventions and controlling of crime
        • Surveillance technology to monitor not only offenders but everyone
      • Foucault
        • Surveillance technology like CCTV and automatic number plate recognition monitor the movement of all people, even if innocent
          • Google collects vast amounts of info about people through data collection
            • Consumer tracking
        • The widespread surveillance promotes conformity
          • as being unsure whether they are being observed or not encourages people to control their own behaviour
      • Criticisms
        • It does not really examine the implications of this for people's civil and human rights
        • it does not recognise the importance or the impact of social inequality
          • The CJS is more likely to benefit the middle class groups who have the power and resources to their needs attended to

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