theories of youth subcultres

  • Created by: gbolton01
  • Created on: 02-03-18 11:19
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  • Theories of youth culture
    • Functionalist
      • Key functionalist idea:
        • everything in society good or bad has a function
        • society based on consensus
        • everyone has to be in social solidarity with each other to crate a value consensus of norms and values for society
      • functionalist sociologists
        • PARSONS
          • sees youth as the transitional period between childhood and adulthood
            • called it a rite of passage
              • seen as a rite of passage as he believes that youths have to transition from the security of the family to the independence and responsibility of adulthood.
          • argued that youth emerged due to the family being associated with developmental capitalism
            • where family had to go out and work rather than socialise children. so education filled this gap
        • EISENSTADT
          • a way of bringing young people into society
          • suggests that youth culture is very important as it provides an outlet for stress and isolation between child and adulthood
            • this helps with as it creates a  sense of belonging as peers will be going through the same stage of rebellion and isolation
        • ROSAK
          • developed a functionalist argument on generation gaps
          • said there was a generation gap emerging due to the differences between adultescents and adults
            • this was in relation to norms, values and fashion
              • this why he believed that youth subcultures existed as youths now share common traits that adults don't
                • this links to parsons and Eisenstadt on youths growing apart from parents
      • Evaluation of functionalist explanations
        • ignores differences between different subcultures. just generalises youth as a whole.
        • ethnocentric
          • all evidence is conducted by white, middle class, males. its questionable whether functionalist research (transitioning problems) can be generalised over all western cultures
        • ignores gender, class and racial differences
    • Marxist
      • key marxist ideas
        • based on conflict
        • main points on capitalism
      • NEO-MARXISTS
        • CCCS- Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies
          • ideas were influenced by marx ideas
            • main focus was 'Hegemony'- which is the ideological dominance or social authority that the ruling class has over subordinate classes
              • these sociologists focused on the economic situations faced by young people in certain classes
      • key thinkers
        • NEO-MARXISTS
          • CCCS- Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies
            • ideas were influenced by marx ideas
              • main focus was 'Hegemony'- which is the ideological dominance or social authority that the ruling class has over subordinate classes
                • these sociologists focused on the economic situations faced by young people in certain classes
        • HALL & JEFFERSON
          • resistance
            • resisted the dominant hegemonic capitalist culture by adopting youth subcultures
              • easier for youth to resist hegemonic society as they are likely to be unemployed
                • example: Punks- made bold anti- capitalist political statements by having a stand out style. by using BRICOLAGE. using house hold items as part of an outfit and adapting new meaning to words (slang)
                  • this was a form of expression to resist societies ruling class
        • BRAKE
          • Magical solutions
            • Brake suggests that subcultures created magical solutions to the lives of its members
              • membership creates safety from facing social and economic problems experienced by working class youths
                • also a way to express freedom and experience ideas
                  • Example: it allows hippies to convince themselves that their generation will be different from their parents, which they are trying to resist from
        • CLARKE
          • Exaggeration
            • woking class values are exaggerated by youth culture to exaggerate the behaviour that defies them in order to oppose capitalist control
              • Example: skinheads- exaggerated masculinity.manual labour style,violence and very territorial
      • Evaluation
        • findings didn't actually exist. because they were looking for examples of class, they just interpreted it in this way
        • outdated finings (50's-60's)
        • middle class largely ignored by CCCS. hippies largely ignored and only used to fit analysis. Saw subcultures as woking class

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