Theories of Justice 4

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  • Theories of Justice 4
    • Jeremy Bentham- Utilitarianism
      • 1784-1832
      • Principles of pleasure and pain
      • Choices made accordingly
      • Concept of utility
      • The greatest happiness for the greatest number
      • Utilitarian Calculus:
        • 3. Certainty
        • 2. Duration
        • 4. Remoteness
        • 1. Intensity
        • 5. Fecundity
        • 6. Purity
        • 7. Extent
    • John Stewart Mill
      • 1806-1873
      • Close to Bentham
      • Utilitarianism
      • Pleasure and pain principles
      • Aware of possible conflicts as "one of the strongest obstacles" to utilitarianism
      • 5 Dimensions of Justice
        • 1. Respecting others "legal rights" is considered just, while violating them is unjust
        • 2. Respecting the "moral right" someone has to something is just,while violating it is unjust
        • 3. It is considered just to give a person what "he deserves" and unjust to deny it
        • 5. In some circumstances, it is deemed unjust "to be partial" in one's judgements and just to be impartial
        • 4. It is thought unjust to "break faith" with another, while keeping faith with others is just
    • Immanuel Kent
      • 1724-1804
      • Metaphysical Elements of Justice
      • Three conditions must be met in order that the concept of justice should apply:
        • 1. We must be dealing with external interpersonal behaviours
        • 2. It must relate to willed action and not merely wishes, desires and needs
        • 3. The consequences intended are not morally relevant
      • Only one innate human right possessed by all persons; right freely to do what one wills, so long as that is "compatible with freedom of everyone else n accordance with a universal law"
      • 3 ancient laws of justice:
        • 2. We should avoid being unjust towards others even if that requires our trying to avoid them altogether
        • 1. We should be honest in our dealings with others
        • 3. If we cannot avoid associating with others, we should at least try to respect their rights


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