Theories

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  • Created by: maizie
  • Created on: 19-04-18 12:41
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  • Theories
    • Bowlby- Theory of attachment
      • Bowlby believed attachment (the bond between mother and child) was an innate process.
        • It is a biological (nature) perspective  of development.
          • He suggests that children  come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others as this will help them to survive.
            • This relationship a child has with their mother/caregiver is important to the social, emotional and cognitive development of the child.
              • Early separation from the primary caregiver may lead to emotional and behavioural problems in later life.
    • Chomsky- model of language acquisition
      • Chomsky believed that language is developed  through the use of an innate language acquisition device, (LAD).
        • This is a biological perspective of intellectual development - the ability to develop signed or spoken   language is genetically programmed into individuals.
          • He believes that children  are born with an inherited ability to learn  any human language and it evolves naturally.
    • Bandura- Social Learning Theory
      • Bandura's theory is based on the idea that the environment influences development.
        • Children learn through imitation and role modelling.
          • He suggests that people can learn through observation, including direct instruction, modelling and imitation.
            • He carried out observations and experiments (his famous experiment was the Bobo doll).
              • He believed that learning occurred through observing the behaviour of others.
                • Unfortunately, he found that children may copy unwanted behaviours such as hitting as well as positive behaviours.
                  • Bandura  suggested there were four stages of behavioural learning:
                    • His famous experiment using the Bobo doll demonstrated that children learn and copy aggressive behaviour if they're are being subjected to aggressive behaviour.
                    • The child notices the behaviour of another person.
                    • The child 'internalises' the action by remembering what they have observed.
                    • They will reproduce the behaviour when a similar opportunity occurs.
                    • Depending on the outcome (positive or negative re-inforcement), the child will either repeat the behaviour or discontinue the behaviour.
                      • Positive reinforcement would either be personal satisfaction or rewards.
                        • Negative reinforcement is lack of satisfaction or punishment.
    • Gesell- Maturation Theory
      • Maturation refers to the characteristics and differences not observed at birth but which emerge later in life.
        • The perspective assumes that individuals have a 'biological clock' that determines when and at what rate development will progress.
          • Maturation is a genetically programmed sequence of change e.g. puberty and menopause.
            • He developed a normative approach to child development by observing large numbers of children to find the skills and abilities most children had in each age group.
              • His findings were used to create the developmental milestones or norms.
                • He suggested that children move through a sequence of development at their own pace.
                  • Development was therefore predetermined and if the child experienced delayed development then it was a hereditary problem, not environmental.
      • Critisism
        • However, the theory does not explain individual or cultural differences in development or for children with learning disabilities.
          • This theory is better to explain the biological clock instead of intellectual, emotional and social.
    • Stress diathesis model
      • Diathesis is a pre-disposition or vulnerability to mental disorder through abnormality of the brain or neuro-transmitters.
        • The model helps to explain how stress caused by life events (nurture) can interact with an individual's genetic  vulnerability (nature) to impact on their mental wellbeing.
          • Some people are born with biological or genetic pre-dispositions (tendencies) to mental illness.
            • High levels of stress and trauma can trigger the onset of psychological disorders for those who have pre-dispositions.
              • Psychosis, depression, schizophrenia, phobias can be triggered by stress, anxiety, death, abuse, trauma or drug taking.
                • However, some people with genetic pre-dispositions may never develop any disorders if they do not experience any triggers.
                  • Only if the combination of the pre-disposition and the stress exceeds a threshold will the person develop a disorder.

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