Theme 1 Hinduism

View mindmap
  • Hinduism-Theme 1
    • Ramakrishna
      • Raised in a Vaishnavite family
        • Became a temple priest
          • Pursued bhakti: saw Kali as divine mother
            • Worshipped his wife as an incarnation of Kali
      • Mystic- dedicated his life to achieving unity with the divine
        • Advaita guru Tota Puri helped him experience monsim
          • Regularly reached state of samadhi- ecstasy
      • Development of advaita
      • Ramakrishna mission & Vivekananda
        • Vivekananda advocated neo-vedanta
          • Incorporated the thinking of Ram Mohan Roy and Ramakrishna
          • Mystic: saw the universal application of Vedanta as the answer to all mankind's problems
          • World Parliament of Religions Chicago 1893
            • "The cyclonic monk from India"
          • Founded the Ramakrishna mission: aims at the harmony of religions and promoting peace and equality for all humanity
      • Importance of tolerance towards all spiritual paths
        • 'God is only one, and not two. Different people call on Him by different names'- Ramakrishna
        • Vivekananda accepts the validity of all religions
          • Defends idol worship (Ramakrishna followed bhakti)
            • Worshipping the formless god of NEO-VEDANTA is superior
    • Upanishads
      • Final section of the Vedas
        • 13 major Upanishads
          • Often considered the beginning of Indian philosophy
        • Root meaning: 'to sit at the feet of' (guru & chela)
          • ESOTERIC tests- attempt to reach JNANA
          • Dialogues between teachers & students
      • Main concern: nature of Brahman and atman
        • Brahman- 'sacred power'
        • Atman- the essence of all living beings, permanent & unchanging, one with Brahman, ultimate reality
      • Identify the mystical connection between humans and the universe
      • Yajna- fire sacrifice
        • Performed outwardly- to appease/nourish gods
          • Symbolically/ spiritually everyone's actions performed as an offering to God without desiring their fruit qualify as an act of sacrifice/ worship
        • Performed inwardly- mentally
          • Pursuit of knowledge/ liberation qualifies as jnana yajna
      • Katha Upanishad
    • Gandhi
      • Advaita vedanta- non-duality
        • Satyagraha- inherent truth force
          • 2 types: civil disobedience & non co-operation
        • Brahmacharya
          • Gandhi pursued Vedic studies & celibacy aged 34
            • "Further progress is not possible unless I have total brahmacharya"
      • 3 goals to gain independence from British rule
        • 1. Hindu- Muslim unity
        • 2. End 'untouchability'
        • 3. Defy the British (through non-violence)
      • 1947- Partition
      • Believed in the fundamental truth of all religions (UNIVERSALISM)
  • Yoga- discipline, self-control, mastery of senses and emotions
    • Jnana- experiential knowledge
      • Difficult to understand; the teaching of an initiated guru is essential (Brahman is only seen by'subtle seers')
    • Upanishads
      • Final section of the Vedas
        • 13 major Upanishads
          • Often considered the beginning of Indian philosophy
        • Root meaning: 'to sit at the feet of' (guru & chela)
          • ESOTERIC tests- attempt to reach JNANA
          • Dialogues between teachers & students
      • Main concern: nature of Brahman and atman
        • Brahman- 'sacred power'
        • Atman- the essence of all living beings, permanent & unchanging, one with Brahman, ultimate reality
      • Identify the mystical connection between humans and the universe
      • Yajna- fire sacrifice
        • Performed outwardly- to appease/nourish gods
          • Symbolically/ spiritually everyone's actions performed as an offering to God without desiring their fruit qualify as an act of sacrifice/ worship
        • Performed inwardly- mentally
          • Pursuit of knowledge/ liberation qualifies as jnana yajna
      • Katha Upanishad
  • "One becomes fit to attain Brahman when he or she possesses a purified intellect and firmly restrains the senses"- BG
    • Inspired Gandhi and underpins his philosophy
      • Never admitted 1 religion
        • Gandhi
          • Advaita vedanta- non-duality
            • Satyagraha- inherent truth force
              • 2 types: civil disobedience & non co-operation
            • Brahmacharya
              • Gandhi pursued Vedic studies & celibacy aged 34
                • "Further progress is not possible unless I have total brahmacharya"
          • 3 goals to gain independence from British rule
            • 1. Hindu- Muslim unity
            • 2. End 'untouchability'
            • 3. Defy the British (through non-violence)
          • 1947- Partition
          • Believed in the fundamental truth of all religions (UNIVERSALISM)
  • Believed in the essential unity of man and God
    • Explained God could be both person/ impersonal, saguna/ nirguna- by comparing God to water/ ice
    • Development of advaita
  • Achieved visions from other religions, hence said 'all religions are true'
    • For him, all visions were manifestations of one ultimate reality
    • Planted early seeds of neo-vedanta
      • Thought caste inequalities could not be legislated against & would disappear naturally
        • Explained God could be both person/ impersonal, saguna/ nirguna- by comparing God to water/ ice

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Hinduism resources »