The Working Memory Model

WMM Mindmap

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  • The Working Memory Model
    • Baddely & Hitch dissagreed with MSM
      • Didn't think people only had one STM (weren't concerned about LTM)
        • Believed that it did more than just being a temporary store for information before it was transferred to the LTM
          • They saw the STM as an active store holding several pieces of info while they're being worked on, hence the name (WMM)
            • Cohen 1990 - the focus of consciousness - it holds information consciously thought about'
        • They proposed a multi-component model with 3 parts, the 4th part was added by Baddeley (2000)
    • The Central Executive
      • A filter that determines what information is and isn't attended to
      • Processes info in all sensory forms, directs info to other slave systems and collects responses
      • It has a limited capacity
        • Can only cope with one strand of info at a time
          • Therefore selectively attends to particular types of info attaining a balance between tasks when attention needs to be divided
            • e.g talking while driving
            • Also allows us to switch attention between inputs of info
      • There is a two-way flow of info between the central executive and the slave systems
    • The Phonological Loop
      • A slave system that is a temporary store dealing with auditory sensoryinfo
        • Similar to the rehearsal system of the MSM
          • However, it has a capacity of the amount of info spoken out loud in two seconds
            • As it is primarily an acoustic store, confusions can occur with similar sounding words
      • It has sub parts
        • Phonological Store
          • Inner ear
            • It also holds info directly from the sensory register or from long-term memory
        • Articulary Loop
          • Inner voice
          • It's a verbal rehearsal system
          • It holds info by articulating sub vocally info we want to retain or are preparing to speak
        • The Primary Acoustic Store
          • Baddeley and Lewis (1981( added this to the model and after it was discovered that the memory of nonsense words is not affected by articulatory suppression
            • This is when learned words are prevented from being spoken out loud
            • Nonsense works must therefore be reliant upon a memory component other than the articulatory loop
          • Believed to hold recently heard speech or sound
    • The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
      • Inner eye
      • It's a visual cache that holds and manipulates visual and spatial info fromthe sensory register or LTM
      • It's a temporary store dealing with visual and spatial items and the relationships between them.
        • Therefore helps people to navigate and interact with their physical environment, with info being rehearsed and encoded through the use of 'mental pictures'
      • Logic (1995) suggests sub-dividing the store further
        • Visual cache - stores visuals material about form and colour
        • Inner scribe - handles spatial relationships and rehearses and tramsfers info in the visual cache to the central executive
    • The Episodic Buffer
      • Baddeley (2000) added a third slave system called the episodic buffer as the model needed a general store to operate properly
        • It deals with processing and temporary storage of specific types of info
          • The central eexecutive has no storagecapacity and so can't contain items relating to visual and acoustic properties
            • Therefore the episodic buffer is a limited capacity store, integrating info from the central executive, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad, as well as from LTM


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