The tsarist regime and its collapse 1914-17

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  • The tsarist regime and its collapse 1914-17
    • Difficulties facing Russia at the start of the 20th century
      • Population of roughly 125 million
      • over 100 different nationalities
      • 80% were peasants or illiterate
      • Big country- difficult to pass on information
      • Lots of inhabitable land
      • Tsar Nicholas II ruled, harsh autocratic regime was supported by a wealthy aristocracy and by the russian orthodox church.
    • Bloody Sunday and the 1905 revolution
      • October manifesto
        • Granted freedom of speech
        • The right to form political parties
        • Formation of an elected government.
      • Food shortages and economic depression resulted in demonstrati-ons.
        • Tsar crushed these with brutal force.
      • Tsar thought the war he waged against japan would gain him popularity,
        • Russia suffered humilliating defeats
      • Revolution in 1905
        • Caused by the growing resentment for the tsar
        • Began as a peaceful demonstrati-on at the winter palace
        • Tsar ordered his troops to open fire
        • Became known as bloody sunday- violent attacks and seizures of land took place
        • Turned into strikes and a naval mutiny
        • Tsar endedthe war with japan and issued october manifesto
      • 1906
        • Tsar had regained   some power before the Duma's elections
        • imposed the fundamental laws
          • Allowed the tsar to dismiss the duma whenever he wanted
          • Could issue any law without consulting the duma.
    • Discontent in world war one
      • Battle of Masurian lakes (September 1914)
        • Out nubered so withdrew (125000 men lost, and artillery)
      • Conscription
        • Compulsary for people to join ( nearly 3 million lost by 1916)
      • Tsar as leader(1915)
        • Took over the front line and left tsarina in charge.
      • Rasputin
        • Supposed to be helping son, made important decisions, influenced tsarina
      • Economic problems and discontent
      • Battle of Tannenburg (1914)
        • Between Russia and German- total destruction of Russian second army (german's used trains, 7000 killed, 50000 taken prisoner)
    • The february revolution
      • The bad winter
        • Worst winter in living memory
        • Severe food and fuel shortages
      • Strikes
        • People were starving so decided to strike
        • This sparked the revolution and gave people the confidence to rebel.
      • Soldiers
        • The army started turning against the tsar
        • There was mutiny and they took sides with the protesters
      • The Duma
        • The duma took over power of the government
        • The provisional government emerged out of it.


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