The Treaty of Verailles

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  • Created by: mhamaia21
  • Created on: 27-01-15 18:15
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  • The Treaty of Versailles
    • January 1919, delegates from 32 countries in Paris to mke peace after war, Germany not invited, no negotiations, signed 28th June 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles.
    • The Big Three
      • David Lloyd George
        • British PM, realist
        • Opinions between France and USA, happy for compromises
        • Public pressure to make Germany ay for loss or he would lose next elections
        • Aware of economic benefits of trading links with Germany
        • Thought criipling was too harsh
        • "Squeeze German lemon until the pips squeak."
        • Aim: Punish Germany for wrongs, reward allies as victors and a just and lasting peace.
        • Backed idea of reducing German navy and giving colonies to League.
        • Aware of Communist threat and wanted a strong Germany against them.
      • Georges Clemenceau
        • Aim: Cripple Germany's resources, pay for damage and death
        • Bitter about Prussian war (1870-71), losing Alsace-Lorraine
        • Realist and aware of compromises being needed and public opinion
        • Bombing hit major cities, factories and houses in war
        • Unemployment had led to national debt
        • Planned to take Rhineland, Saarland, Upper Silesia, Danzig, East Prussia away from Germany
        • Wanted to weaken Germany by splitting her into smaller states.
      • Woodrow Wilson
        • Aim: a just and lasting peace
        • Annoyed others by saying America was superior
        • Idealist but lacked support in his own country
        • USA less affected by war and bombs
        • 14 Points: No secret treaties, free access to seas, free trade, disarmament, German troops leave Russia, Alsace Lorraine returned, self determination, League of Nations
      • Why different aims? Disagreements?
        • Different experiences (war, loss...)
        • Intense damage to France and loss of life in Britain
        • Lloyd George influenced by media and public
        • Lloyd George keen to maintain naval supremacy, key to her Empire
    • Clauses of the treaty
      • War Guilt (clause 231)
        • Germany responsible for all loss and damage
        • Germany admitting full responsibility for starting war
        • Justification for reparations
      • Reparations (clause 232)
        • 132 billion goldmarks, (£6,600 million), well beyond ability to pay
        • Blank cheque that could be cashed when it suited the Allies
        • Money used to address damage to infrastructure
      • Territories (clauses 42, 45, 51, 87 and 119)
        • Land in Eastern Germany and Polish Corridor given to Poland
        • Rhineland was demilitarized, German army forbidden entry
        • Saar coalfields given to France for 15 years
        • Alsace Lorraine returned to France
        • All Germany's colonies given to France and Britain
      • Armed forces (clauses 160, 181 and 198)
        • 100,000 men in army
        • 6 battleships, no submarines
        • no air force
        • Rhineland demilitarized
      • League of Nations (clauses 1-26)
        • Germany not allowed to join
        • An assembly of all nations formed to protect world peace in the future
    • The Ruhr Crisis
      • First installment of reparations were paid in 1921
        • 1922, Germany could not pay, so in 1923, French and Belgium troops entered Ruhr (industrial area), and took what was owed in raw materials
          • Legal under treaty, but Germans could take no more loss and so workers took up passive resistance, so there was nothing to take.
            • 100 workers killed, 100,000 protestors expelled
              • Reparations and Ruhr Crisis plunged Germany into national Crisis
                • Hyperinflation, savings and pensions were worthless and prices and wages rocketed out of control
                  • Sometimes burning bank noes were cheaper than wood
    • Other Treaties
      • St Germain, Austria, September 1919
      • Neuilly, Bulgaria, November 1919
      • Trianon, Hungary, June 1920
      • Sevres, Turkey, August 1920
      • All lost lands, only B. and A. had regulations on army, only B. paid reparations, T. outraged by amount of land lost
    • Was the Treaty fair?
      • Hindsight, it led to Hitler
      • Germany would have done the same, ver well known fact plans had been drawn
      • Neighbouring countries needed to feel safe from further attacks
      • Germany treated Russia harshly, treaty of Brest - Litovsk
      • At time and circumstances, anything else would have been unacceptable
      • Diktat, Germans had no say and other countries lost as well but were not so harshly treated.

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