C: The Third Reich in Action - minority groups

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  • Created by: BeccaEK
  • Created on: 27-04-15 17:11
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  • The third reich in action - Hitler's attitudes to minorities
    • Jews
      • Ideas about Jews
        • Long existing tradition of hostility towards Jews
          • Nazis took advantage of this
        • Jews easy to identify
          • Respect for education led to jobs such as: doctors, lawyers or businessmen
            • Economic success led to jealousy from non-Jews
        • Hitler's personal hatred of Jews came from his time in Vienna
          • He was in poverty but saw rich Jews around him
            • Economic success led to jealousy from non-Jews
        • Mein Kampf frequently referred to Jews
          • It was clear he hated them
          • Thought Jews contaminated pure German blood
      • Treatment of Jews
        • Seen as 'untermenschen'
          • Sub-humans
        • April 1933 - 1st boycotts of Jewish shops, doctors, lawyers
        • April 1933 - Jews excluded from government jobs
        • Buses, trains, parks had designated seats for Jews
        • In school, children taught anti-Semitic ideas
          • Jewish children ridiculed by teachers + bullied by other children
            • Bullying unpunished
      • Nuremberg Laws
        • Jews lost their right to be German citizens
          • Marriage between Jew + non-Jew forbidden
        • Caused 250,000 Jews to leave Germany from 1933-1939
        • 1936-1937 = Jews could no longer be teachers, dentists, surveyors, auctioneers, nurses or accountants
        • During Olympics 1936 open violence towards Jews suspended
        • June 1937 - Jewish women who slept with a German to be sent to concentration camps
      • Kristallnacht
        • November 1938 - German diplomat murdered by a Jew
          • In retaliation Hitler ordered 7 days of terror for Jews by SS
        • 9th Nov 1939 Kristallnacht began 7 days of terror
        • 'Night of broken glass'
        • 10,000 shops destroyed + contents stolen
        • Homes + synagogues set on fire
        • Jews made to pay fine of 1 billion marks in damages for the night
        • Over 30,000 sent to concentration camps after
    • Gypsies
      • Only others (with Jews) targeted for extermination in 'final solution'
      • Possessed no territories, so were outsiders
      • For centuries they had suffered discriminaton + persecution
      • 1920 - a book described them as 'unworthy of life'
        • Their 'crime' was transmitting genetic diseases
      • 1920 - forbidden from entering parks/public baths
      • All gypsies (inc. children) carried ID card with fingerprint + photos
      • Sept 1935 Nuremberg law forbade intermarriage
      • June 1938 - Gypsy Clean-up Week
        • Similar to 7 days of terror for Jews
      • 1938 - 1st reference to 'The Final Solution of the Gypsy Question'
      • Jan 1940 - 1st mass genocide of Holocaust
        • 250 gypsy children murdered in Buchenwald
          • Used to test efficiency of chemicals later used in gas chambers
    • Mentally ill + disbabled
      • July 1933 - 'Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases'
        • Sterilisation of all those with hereditary diseases
          • Supposed to 'weed out' genetic defects from German gene pool
      • Jan 1934 - Forced sterilisation
        • Between 300,000 and 400,000 legally sterilised
          • Simply diagnosis of 'feeble minded' was enough for this
      • Several thousand died from steirlisation
      • Majority sterilised were patients in mental hospitals
        • Majority aged between 20 and 40
      • 1935 Marriage law
        • All marriages needed proof that children would not have mental illness
      • Hitler allowed them to be killed, not to relieve suffering, but to eradicate them
        • Called 'Operation T4'
        • Used Carbon Monoxide gas
    • Homosexuals
      • After unification, homosexuality became a crime
        • Laws against them strictly enforced + there was considerable dicrimination
      • Hitler attacked homosexuals in his own government
        • Agreed to murder of Ernst Rohm (leader of SA) in June 1934
      • Most of SS thought death penalty should be in place for homosexuality
      • 1937 on - homosexuals sent to concentration cmaps
        • Forced to wear pink triangle
        • SS used them for target practice in some camps

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