C: The Third Reich in Action

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  • Created by: BeccaEK
  • Created on: 26-04-15 17:32
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  • The third reich in action
    • Hitler's consolidation of power
      • Hindenburg persuaded to use Article 48 - confirmed by Enabling Act 1933
        • 1st Feb - Hindenburg dissolved Reichstag
          • Called for new elections on 5th March
      • 27th Feb - Reichstag fire, by Van der Lubbe
        • Fears of communism
        • Day after, Hindenburg signed Emergency Decree
          • Anyone opposing Nazis could be arrested legitimately
    • March 1933
      • 5th March Reichstag elections
        • Nazis failed to win majority of seats
          • Gained 44% of vote = 288 seats
            • Needed support from DNVP's 52 seats for majority
    • Nazis coming to power
      • Weakness of Weimar Republic allowed Nazis to exploit their problems
        • Didn't recognise Hitler couldn't be controlled
      • Hitler = strong leader
      • Nazi propaganda
        • General + specific appeals to public
          • Led to increase in electoral support in 1930 + 1932
      • Use of violence
        • Intimidated opposition
    • Enabling Act 1933
      • Passed 441 votes to 94
      • Hitler could pass laws for next 4 years without Reichstag
        • Democracy had come to an end
      • Opposing MPs put in jails or new concentration camps
        • 25,000 imprisoned - 57 executed
    • One party state
      • Early 1933 Lander governments removed from power
        • Excuse for this = state governments unable to maintain law + order
      • May 1933 - trade unions disbanded
      • June 1933 SPD banned
        • Law against formation of new parties
      • Hitler merged Chancellor + President to create Fuhrer
    • Government and administration
      • Non-governmental organisations set up to implement Nazi policy
        • Controlled by senior Nazis
      • Party given control of regions through 32 Gauleiters
      • Himmler became head of SS in 1929
        • Then became chief of police in 1936
        • SS expanded to more than 1 million members
    • Benefits of Nazi regime
      • 'Labour front' = improved facilities for workers
        • 'Beauty of labour' = recreational facilities at workplaces
        • 'Strength through joy' = subsidised entertainment eg cheap holidays
      • Volksgemeinschaft = reiteration of  national traditions
        • Eg. olympics
      • Strong support for them
        • Good among women + younger people
          • Education + youth organisations helped this
      • Successful propaganda
    • Opposition to Nazi regime
      • Mostly small isolated groups
      • Emergency Decree 1933
        • Legal opposition almost impossible
      • Key leaders of opposition sent to concentration camps
      • Army leaders trapped by oath of allegiance to Hitler in 1934
      • Most Germans indifferent or non-political
    • Hitler and organised religion
      • Born Catholic but rejected Christianity
        • 1933 - Concordat with Catholic church
          • Would safeguard rights of the Catholics
        • German Christians = biggest opposition
      • Antisemitist
      • Germany = police state
    • Schacht + the economy
      • Schacht read Mein Kampf - impressed by Hitler's ideas
      • Schacht = president of Reichsbank
      • Reduction in unemployed
      • Rearmament impossible without own money - relying on loans
        • Managed to pay for it using 'Mefo bills' - allowed rearmament to be secret
          • Only a short term solution
            • Long term = need for well developed industries
      • Four year plan (1936)
        • Aimed to give businessmen more freedom
      • Autarky
        • Schacht plan 1636 - aimed to...
          • Reduce imports
            • Desire for self-sufficieny
            • 1939 - 33% raw materials still imported
          • Reduce unemployment
          • Widen government spending to range of industries
          • Made trade agreements with nations
            • Trade with Britain and US decreased
    • Nazis + the unemployed
      • 6 million unemployed 1933
        • 302,000 unemployed 1939
      • Women no longer counted in statistics
        • Those who remained out of work 'did not exsist'
      • Unemployed given choice of do work given or go to concentration camp
      • 1939 - army was 1.4 million strong
        • Provided jobs for those equipping them
      • Control of workers
        • Strikes illegal
        • 6 months labour service essential
    • Education, marriage, parenthood
      • Only 10% uni places for women
        • Girls studied mainly domestic subjects
      • Law for encouraged marriage 1933
        • Newly married couples got loan of 1,000 marks
          • Wife had to give up her job
        • 1 child = 75% paid back, 2 + 50%, 4 = keep all
      • Women wore no makeup
        • Could not die their hair
      • Gold cross = 8 children, silver = 6, bronze = 4
        • Unmarried women encouraged to have children
      • Curriculum =
        • Biology - study of different races
        • Eugenics - taught girls to be good mothers
        • PE compulsory
    • Hitler Youth
      • Hitler wanted to control their free time
      • 1932 - 35,000 members
        • 1933 - 100,000 members
          • 1936 - 4million members
            • That year it became compulsory
      • Age groups = 6-10, 10-14, 14-18
      • Personified German discipline
      • Attendance compulsory 1939 (only 90% attended)

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