The Third Crusade

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 30-03-14 16:25
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  • The Third Crusade
    • Why was it called?
      • By 1187 Jerusalem is lost, humiliating defeats against Franks, e.g Battle of Hattin w/Guy
      • Pope Gregory VIII puts into place predecessor Urban III plans for a crusade
      • Pope believed loss of Jerusalem signified how sinful Christians had become, loss of faith
    • Why did people join?
      • Didn't need to be persuaded too much, shock of losing J = big
      • Frederick Barbarossa, The Holy Roman Emperor - increase power + position
      • Richard I,strong religious motives, also solve disputes over French land w/Phillip II
      • Phillip II, King of France, Increase power + wealth, territorial disputes
      • Henry II, King of England, penance for murdering Tom Becket + could extend power over kingdom
    • Why did it fail in 1193?
      • Captured land in the South BUT not Jerusalem
        • Capture of Tyre 1187= success esp. for Conrad but becomes rival to Guy
      • F. Barbarossa marches from Ger. through Anatolia but Greeks attack them, Byzantine Emp. Isaac allows this + informs Saladin of intentions. 1190 drowns, many Germans desert after
      • Rich = distracted, takes Cyprus due to poor treatment/ship wreck. Turns out to be useful to give to others as political tool (Guy)
      • 1191 Siege of Acre, all worked together well, split Acre betw/them. Rich did kill 3,000 Muslim prisoners though
      • Dispute over crown of J, most agreed (inc. Phil) Conrad (m. Isabella) should be King esp. after Guy's loss at Hattin, but Rich supported Guy
      • 1191 attack on Jaffa + Battle of Arsuf, good Jaffa=port closest to J - lots of supplies. " knights later charged at Muslims, BoA, won but not crushing defeat for Saladin
      • 1191-2 1st attempt at J, 19km away but too well defended, lack of supplies, protect Ascalon
      • 1192-3 2nd attempt at J, started to march but lost unification - French vs English. Stories of Phil attacking Rich's lands in France, French angry @ Rich's plans to attack Egypt before J, Rich returned to Acre
      • Divided leadership- many leave or are angry w/eachother
      • Saladin's forces = strong, control land N + S of Jerusalem
  • Why was it called?
    • By 1187 Jerusalem is lost, humiliating defeats against Franks, e.g Battle of Hattin w/Guy
    • Pope Gregory VIII puts into place predecessor Urban III plans for a crusade
    • Pope believed loss of Jerusalem signified how sinful Christians had become, loss of faith

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