The Social and Cultural Structure of Settlements (Toronto, Canada)

WJEC Settlement Change; "How does the social and cultural structure of settlements vary and why?" 

Case study: Toronto, Canada. 

Few facts about the social, cultural and ethnic segregation within Toronto leading to ethnic enclaves, ghettos and spacial segregation of its residents. 

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  • Created by: Duana
  • Created on: 02-05-13 19:57
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  • The Social & Cultural Structure of Settlements: Toronto, CN
    • One of the most multicultural cities - 45% foreign born, 140+ languages/dialects spoken
      • Toronto experiencing substantial growth due to immigration
      • A divided city with spacial segregation due to...
        • 1. Race/ethnicity
        • 2. Income/wealth
        • 3. Religion
        • 4. Age
        • 5. Political beliefs
    • Development of  ghettos...
      • People wanting to 'fit in'
      • Access to specific facilities related to ethnicity (e.g. religious buildings)
      • Access to parts of culture (e.g. food, markets)
      • Language
      • Community networks
    • Development of ethnic enclaves...
      • Internal factors from ethnic groups
        • Support from community network
        • Safety in numbers
        • Facilities appropriate to culture
        • Language
      • External factors from existing population/ country
        • Discrimination in the job market - ethnic minorities only able to access low paid jobs and forced to live in cheap housing areas
        • Existing pop. hostile to new arrivals, including racism against ethnic minorites
        • "White Flight", as immigrants move in residents move out (fear of house prices, crime etc.)
    • Redevelopment
      • Positive factors
        • Better quality of life & standard of living
        • New facilties
        • Improved perceptions of area (less intimidating, aesthetically pleasing)
        • Optimism from residents, begin to improve life e.g. drug habits
      • Negative factors
        • Property/ housing prices may rise
        • Removal of historical buildings
        • Wealthier residents may move into modernised houses, lower income forced into poorer areas


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