Sixties - a cultural revolution?

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  • The Sixties - a cultural revolution?
    • Feminsm
      • Women were expected to marry, have children, do domestic chores, limited to nursing, teaching or secretarial jobs.
      • Femine Mistique captured the frustration of women.
      • The feminist movement focused on the work place e.g salary discrimination.
        • Used anti discrimination laws to propose a prohibition on gender discrimination that was laughed at but was passed through a civil rights act.
        • The equal employment law was not always followed - NOW was set up to aid women seeking legal advice.
        • Open up the discrimination of women on a public, political level. Bra burning 1968.
        • Tackled the political level. Lobbied congressmen, published reports - demanded the legalising of abortion and a spouse abuse law.
        • Not necessarily a revolution - 2/3 of all new jobs after WW2 went to women - however it was the low pay jobs.
    • The New Left
      • Freedom of Speech Movement
        • Fears of Communism in 1930s led to laws which prevented the freedom of speech (about politics), Student were not allowed to engage with any on campus.
        • Wanted to have their say about the Cuban Revolution and the Cold War.
        • Some students began pushing the boundaries (preaching against racism) and many got arrested. 3000 student stopped the police car.
        • After much protesting, officials backed down. An academic senate meeting was held and a vote was passed to remove the ban on 'no political speeches on campus'
      • Also known as the SDS - wanted changed to foreign policy, civil rights and quality of life.
        • Became very focused on Vietnam and Nuclear, also on freedom of speech and black rights.
          • It was a students way to become involved in politics and have their say. "get involved with decision that affected their life"
          • Heavily involved with Vietnam (1968) - drew attention to moral issues - first time for public to demand changes to a war.
            • The bombing sped up protests. Uni Students began educating others on the moral issues. Claimed Vietnam was draining resources. Publication of Pentagon papers proved the moral issues of Vietnam.
            • After the failure of the Tet offensive, more and more joined, even war veterans.Gallup Poll showed 50% were against the war. Lottery conscription caused mass fleeing to Canada.
            • Influenced Politicians, Nixon promised Law and order and ended Vietnam.
        • Rejected hierarchy and bureaucracy.
        • They inspired art and art inspired them.
    • Drug and Sex Culture.
      • Draw away from being told what to do by authority (god and politics)
        • Sex and Drugs influenced art, created a counter culture. Rebel against parents - underground magazines spread the influence.
        • Began to change attitudes towards women, gay/lesbians,private lives.
          • Led to decreased censorship due to pornography and the legalising of abortions.
    • Black Rights. (1968)
      • Wanted racial equality and an end to the segregation.
        • Their were many protests including sit in.
          • Created a Civil Rights movement that attracted the SDS, who hated unfair laws and that politics was controlling Black peoples lives.
          • MLK 250000 to hear his speech. 1963.
            • Influenced politicians - JFK saw MLK's release from prison and 70% of blacks voted for him. He appointed black men to work for him and spoke in favour of desegregation.
              • A new segment was included in the Civil Rights Act 1964 (1) Protect African Americans from discrimination in public places, schools no longer segregated.
                • Honour Kennedy.
                • Folllowed up in 1968 - prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin and sex.
    • Apollo 1968.
    • JFK Death
    • 3.3 lowest rate of unemployment.
    • Prague Spring (ussr put and end to) - Leader wanted to granted additional rights. 1968 (Czechoslovakia)
    • Why rebel?
      • Baby boomers come to age in 60s.
        • Move away from horrors of war - relax and enjoy life.
        • Drugs were the escape from the unfair times.
        • Disgusted with the same inequality they faced. Only known an affluent society.

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