The Second Crusade

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 30-03-14 12:45
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  • The Second Crusade
    • Who is responsible for calling it?
      • Medium: Eugenius Writes Bull Quantum Praedecessores, religious motives, offers crusaders a lot e.g remission of sins + not interest on loans. Encourages Louis to follow his plan.
      • Most: Bernard Teaches E ideology of Holy War, 1147 given control of Crusade by E. Does most of preaching - tours Fr + Ger (but uses Bull), uses Cisterian monks for recruiting + convinces C's enemies to join to C will join.
    • How was it different from 1st?
      • Status of Papacy was assured after Investiture contest + capture of Jerusalem. Knights = more popular, elite
      • States were established and defended unlike before
    • Why did it fail?
      • Lack of clear motive/ over ambition e.g Iberian and Baltic (Wendish) Crusade
      • Rise of Muslim unity, Nur-al Din, Ji'had ideology
      • Poor Frankish leadership, @ Dorylaeum + Damascus, from Conrad + Louis
      • Lack of Byzantine support, blamed for Dorylaeum, French like Italians + Byzantines don't
      • Christian/ Frankish disunity, e.g dislike betw/ Louis + Raymond of Antioch
      • No element of surprise, Turks know how Christians fight (Conrad at Dorylaeum), Louis follows same route as before
    • What were the effects after the failure?
      • 1146 2nd Muslim attack on E, destroyed city not worth recapturing
      • Failure @ Damascus strengthened Nur-al Din + increased Muslim morale, see Battle of Inab
      • BIII appealed to west for help-nothing comes = humiliating, future crusades = less popular.
      • Attack on Damascus destroyed alliance betw/rulers of Outremer + Muslims
      • Drove Eastern + Western churches further apart
      • Papacy lost prestige
      • All crusades now strictly military
      • Sowed seeds for ultimate downfall of Outremer in 1187
  • Why was it called?
    • The Second Crusade
      • Who is responsible for calling it?
        • Medium: Eugenius Writes Bull Quantum Praedecessores, religious motives, offers crusaders a lot e.g remission of sins + not interest on loans. Encourages Louis to follow his plan.
        • Most: Bernard Teaches E ideology of Holy War, 1147 given control of Crusade by E. Does most of preaching - tours Fr + Ger (but uses Bull), uses Cisterian monks for recruiting + convinces C's enemies to join to C will join.
      • How was it different from 1st?
        • Status of Papacy was assured after Investiture contest + capture of Jerusalem. Knights = more popular, elite
        • States were established and defended unlike before
      • Why did it fail?
        • Lack of clear motive/ over ambition e.g Iberian and Baltic (Wendish) Crusade
        • Rise of Muslim unity, Nur-al Din, Ji'had ideology
        • Poor Frankish leadership, @ Dorylaeum + Damascus, from Conrad + Louis
        • Lack of Byzantine support, blamed for Dorylaeum, French like Italians + Byzantines don't
        • Christian/ Frankish disunity, e.g dislike betw/ Louis + Raymond of Antioch
        • No element of surprise, Turks know how Christians fight (Conrad at Dorylaeum), Louis follows same route as before
      • What were the effects after the failure?
        • 1146 2nd Muslim attack on E, destroyed city not worth recapturing
        • Failure @ Damascus strengthened Nur-al Din + increased Muslim morale, see Battle of Inab
        • BIII appealed to west for help-nothing comes = humiliating, future crusades = less popular.
        • Attack on Damascus destroyed alliance betw/rulers of Outremer + Muslims
        • Drove Eastern + Western churches further apart
        • Papacy lost prestige
        • All crusades now strictly military
        • Sowed seeds for ultimate downfall of Outremer in 1187
    • 1144 Dec 24th Capture of Edessa

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