ROYAL DEMESNE AND THE CARTAE BARONUM: 1166

Refers to AQA A2 Angevin Kings Module: Henry II.

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  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 16-01-14 18:18
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  • The Royal Demesne and and the Cartae Baronum 1166 (Henry II)
    • ROYAL DEMESNE
      • At the time of William I, Royal Demesne amounted to about a quarter of England. By Henry II's reign this has shrunk by half.
        • Returns at the start of the reign where only £8000
      • DEFINITION: All land in the realm that had not been put in private hands, from which the crown took rents.
      • Henry restored royal lands by recovering land that had been encroached on by landholders during the reign of Stephen, updating rents and recovering land that should have gone to the crown but had not (escheats)
        • SUCCESSFUL: By 1165 there were 70 new items on account. Royal justices were appointed to track down new losses from royal estates.
          • BUT... However successful Henry was at increasing revenue for royal estates, he could not run his government by this income alone...
            • Other ways included military service, money in lieu (scutage), wardship of minors, marriages of daughters and asking for aids.
              • The Doomsday Book, now 100 years out of date, was an invaluable reference, but an update was needed.
                • SO,,,
                  • The first attempt was made to revise the Exchequer's Record in 1166
                    • Tenants-in-Chief were commanded to send in sealed returns listing sub tenancies on their lands, the amount of Knight's service owed to them and the name of the tenants both in 1166 and at the time of Henry I
                      • 'The Barons Returns', although not only limited to Barons, but to the thousands of small fiefs held by the crown.
                        • Important as wants allegiance with all landlords: great and small.
    • CARTAE BARONUM
      • The first attempt was made to revise the Exchequer's Record in 1166
        • Tenants-in-Chief were commanded to send in sealed returns listing sub tenancies on their lands, the amount of Knight's service owed to them and the name of the tenants both in 1166 and at the time of Henry I
          • 'The Barons Returns', although not only limited to Barons, but to the thousands of small fiefs held by the crown.
            • Important as wants allegiance with all landlords: great and small.
      • Asked four main questions of tenants-in-chief...
        • How many Knights enfoeffed at time of Henry I?
        • How many Knights enfoeffed since 1135?
        • How many knights on your demesne in addition to those enfeoffed for Knight-Service?
        • The Names of the Knights?
      • Enables the King to assess who landholders were, and use it for finacial assessments for his government.
        • Financial Demands not new however - Henry I had demanded payments on the numbers of Knights fees created instead of actual service.
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