Respiratory System

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  • Created by: Jelena
  • Created on: 20-04-13 22:01
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  • The Respiratory System
    • Supplies oxygen to blood
    • Removed carbon dioxide from blood
    • Regulates blood pH (acid base balance)
  • Inspiration
    • Air pressure in lungs is BELOW atmospheric pressure
      • Air moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
    • Intercostal muscles contract and move upward
    • Diaphragm contracts and moves backward and flattens
  • Expiration
    • Air pressure in lungs is ABOVE atmospheric pressure
      • Air moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
    • Diaphragm and intercostals muscles relax and move up
    • Chest wall diminishes
    • Forced breathing
      • Passive recoil of lungs is not fast enough to keep up so thoracic and ab wall contract
        • Decreases pressure in thoracic cavity and increases pressure in lungs, forcing air out rapidly
    • Quiet breathing
      • Elastic lining in alveolar sacs recoil as the diaphragm relaxes and air is expelled
  • Ventilation
    • Affected by:
      • Tidal volume
        • Volume of air in each breath
      • Respiration frequency
        • Number of breaths taken per minute
    • Volume of air that is moved by the lungs in one minute
    • Controlled by respiratory control centres in the brain
  • Two Zones
    • Conductive Zone
      • Includes: pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary and secondary bronchi, tertiary and terminal bronchioles
      • Transports air to lungs
      • Warms air
      • Filters air taken in
    • Respiratory Zone
      • Includes: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs
      • Alveolar sacs provide large surface area for gas exchange
      • Alveolar sacs provide large surface area for gas exchange
      • Alveolar sacs surrounded by a web of capillaries
        • Only one cell thick

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