The Philippines, the Panama Canal, and Theodore Roosevelt

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  • The Philippines, the Panama Canal, and Theodore Roosevelt
    • The Philippines
      • Taking the Philippines would make access to Chinese markets easier
      • Would prevent other powers taking over islands, with Spain gone
      • America would bring benefits (e.g. education, health care, and democracy
      • McKinley claimed America had to "educate... uplift... civilize and Christianise" the Philippines
        • Ignorance - many Filipinos already Catholics from decades ago
      • McKinley claimed the American mission there was one of 'benevolent assimilation'
      • Fighting continued to 1902, even after capture of Aguinaldo
        • 4,000 American and 20,000 Filipinos died
        • The Philippine Government Act of 1902 ended war
          • Gave an elected assembly but with an American governor general
      • Given independence in 1946
    • The Panama Canal
      • 1897 - French company began to build canal between Atlantic and Pacific oceans through Columbia
      • By 1890s, company went bankrupt so project given to Americans for $40 million in 1901
      • Agreement that Colombians would give US a 99-year lease on area and permission to finish for $10 million and $250,000 pa
        • Colombian Senate rejected the deal
      • Americans worked with Philippe Bunau-Varilla, employee of French canal company, to organise a 'revolution'
        • Aim to gain Panamanian independence from Colombia
      • November 1903 - 10 day 'revolution' occurred
      • US sent the USS Nashville to prevent Colombian troops re-taking control
      • Roosevelt recognised new country of Panama
      • Treaty signed with new government giving US a 10-mile wide strip of land around canal
        • Americans have it in perpetuity, in return of $10 million and $250,000 pa
      • 1914 - Panama Canal open to shipping
    • Theodore Roosevelt
      • Believed US had duty to educate and civilize more backward nations
        • Believed the hardships of war were good for nations
      • Believed in use of quiet diplomacy and of force when needed
        • "Speak softly and carry a big stick"
      • Admired Mahan
        • Hugely increased US navy and professionalised army whilst in office
        • Believed strong military would strengthen America's position in world
      • 1902 - sent ships to resolve dispute between Venezuela and European powes
        • Roosevelt feared they might take land in Venezuela
          • Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
            • US had the right to interfere in affairs of countries on American continent in case of 'impotence or wrong doing'
            • Used by Americans to interfere in Dominican Republic (1905), Nicaragua (1912), and Haiti (1918)
      • 1906 - helped to mediate between France and Germany over Moroccan Crisis
      • Won Nobel Peace Prize for helping negotiate the Treaty of Portsmouth
        • Ended Russo-Japanese War
      • 1907 - 'Great White Fleet' sent on a tour of the Pacific


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