The Path to Restoration 1588-1660

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  • The Path to Restoration, 1658-1660
    • Problems on Cromwell's death
      • Finance: a debt of £2.5million
      • Probable lack of permanency to Humble Petition as a constitution
      • Hereditary nature of position of Protector
      • Army still a dominant force, but hadn't been paid their arrears
      • Loss of central figure - divisions with Protectorate
    • Divisions within the Protectorate
      • Under the terms of the Humble Petition and Advice, Richard succeeded his father as Lord Protector and Commander-in-chief
      • The five main political groupings
        • Army: Fleetwood and Desborough wanted Richard's Protectorate to continue
        • Republicans (Common-wealthsmen): Haselrig opposed the Protectorate. They wanted the weakening of army influence
        • Presbyterians (Civilian Cromwellians): They wished to see a more traditional parliamentary settlement and a reduction in army influence
        • Royalists: Supporters of the monarchy
        • Radical secretaries: They were unhappy with a Protector who seemed to have distinct Presbyterian sympathies. They called for a return to the Commonwealth
      • Royalists had hope after the death of Cromwell
      • The Army
        • There was a lack of unity between army leaders
          • Fleetwood saw it as being to their advantage to maintain the Protectorate as Richard Cromwell was inexperienced
            • The tendance among lower ranks was to side with the secretaries
        • Richard's main weakness was that he was not a soldier
          • He had an uneasy relationship with the army and so relied more on civilian advisers
            • The military urged him to give up his position as Commander-in-chief
              • There was still unrest with the army because of the failure to pay arrears. The collective sum owed was £900,000
                • The Protectorate was in £2.5million debt in 1659
    • Third Protectorate Parliament, Jan.-April 1659
      • The Republicans launched a series of attacks on the legitimacy of the Protectorate
      • Conservative Presbyterian MPs attempted to undermine the army's power by introducing a resolution that meant the Council of Offices should sit only with permission of parliament
        • They also voted to take the command of the local militia out of the hands of the army and bring it under direct parliamentary control
          • Officers and ranks united and demanded that the Protector dissolve parliament, however Richard resisted
            • Eventually Richard gave way when England was on the verge of an army insurrection
      • With the dissolution of the parliament, power was effectively back in the hands of the Council of the Army
        • In order to make their power appear less stark, they recommended recalling the Rump
    • The Rump, May-Oct. 1659
      • Richard Cromwell resigned
        • Inability to fashion a civil government free of control of the army
        • The strength of the republican campaign against the Protectorate
        • Financial bankruptcy
      • The Rump declined to acknowledge its dependence on the army
        • It denounced the army's interference in political matters and claimed legitimacy as the only authority representing constitutional continuity
        • In a number of counties the Rump curbed army influence by putting local militia into the hands of extreme sectaries e.g Fifth Monarchists, Quakers and Baptists
          • There was fear of takeover by religious extremists
      • In the Humble Petition and Address of the Officers, the army demanded that the Rump's authority be reduced
      • There were Presbyterian-royalist uprisings in the summer. They were as a result of talk about church and state being under threat from radical forces
        • Booth called for a 'free parliament'
          • He believed that a freely-elected parliament would be the prelude to a royal restoration
    • The Committee of Safety, October - December 1659
      • In order to give itself legitimacy, the army appointed a Committee of Safety, an interim government, until a more permanent body could be established
      • The dispersal of the Rump had not won unanimous support from the army
      • Portsmouth, an important garrison town, and the navy declared against the government
      • The three most common themes in petitions against the Committee were economic circumstances, tyranny of army rule and the need for restoration of ancient liberties
        • Army officers allowed the Rump to reassemble in December 1659
    • The Recalled Rump, Dec. 1659 - Feb. 1660
      • There was deep unpopularity of the army's rule and the Committee of Safety had been forced to dissolve itself and reassemble the Rump by Monck
      • Desborough, Lambert and Fleetwood were all immediately dismissed
        • Monck was invited to become Commander-in-chief
      • Initially the Rump appeared strong, but they made a series of mistakes
        • Instead of attending the nations problems and grievances, it tended to settle old scores - it purged the army
          • There was broad distaste for their proceedings. Traders and merchants refused to pay parliamentary taxes
            • Rather than honouring Monck, the Rump aimed to restrict his political influence
              • Monck used his troops to bring order to the City
    • The Restored Long Parliament, April - May 1660
      • The return of so many members of the 1648 Long Parliament altered the political balance
      • Monck presented himself as a moderate
        • He persuaded parliament to keep their promise to make him Commander-in-chief, to appoint a new Council of State and then to vote for its own dissolution
          • Monck was careful not to declare that he was working for an eventual royal restoration
      • Edward Montague, a former Cromwellian general now favoured Charles' return
    • The Convention Parliament, April - May 1660
      • With the elections for new parliament being held, Lambert made one last bid to save the republican cause
        • Monck undermined the republicans both militarily and politically
      • Over 60 members with strong royalist views took seats even though the election specified that no known royalists could stand
        • Republicans and supporters of the Commonwealth were in the minority
          • Half the convention was made up of Parliamentarians, many Presbyterian
    • The Restoration of Monarchy, May 1660
      • In the Declaration of Breda Charles promised a general pardo, religious toleration, and accepted the right of parliament to decide the disputed questions of property entitlements and the arrears of pay
        • "liberty to tender consciences"
      • On 8 May Engand was formally declared to be no longer a repblic
        • Charles made a ceremonial entry into London in May 1660

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