The Muscular System

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  • The Muscular System
    • Muscle names
      • Tibalis anterior
      • Biceps brachii
        • Flexion of the elbow
      • Hamstring
        • Flexion of the knee
      • Triceps brachii
        • Extnsion of the elbow
      • Quadriceps
        • Extends the knee
      • Rectus Abdominals
        • Flexion of the spine
      • Gastrocnemius
        • Extension of th enakle
      • Gluteus maximus
        • Extension of the hip
      • Deltoid
        • Lifting your shoulder
      • Pectoralis major
        • Adducting your arms
      • Trapezius
      • Latissimus dorsi
        • Abducting and rotating the arms
    • Functions of muscles
      • Helps in the circulation of blood
      • Generate body heat when it contracts
      • Gives us our individual shape
      • Maintain a good posture
      • Enables us to move body parts
      • Protect and keep abdominal organs in place
    • Antagonistic pairs
      • The agonist is the prime mover and contracts to start the movement
      • The antagonist is the muscle that relaxes to allow the movement
      • Muscles working oppositely are said to be working antagonistically
        • e.g triceps brachii (antagonist)and biceps brachiii (agonist)
    • Types of muscle
      • Cardiac muscle
        • Only found in the heart and contracts and relaxes continuously
        • Involuntary muscles
      • Skeletal muscles
        • They are attatched to skeleton under control to make our bodies move
        • Voluntary muscle
      • Smooth muscles
        • They are around organs such as the intestines and blood vessels
        • Involuntary muscles
    • Muscle movement
      • Muscles can only pull they cannot push
      • When a muscle contrcats one bone moves while the other one stays stationary
    • Insertion
      • Where the muscle joins the stationary bone
    • Origin
      • Where the muscle joins the stationary bone
    • Synergist
      • The muscle that stabilises the joint while the movement takes place
    • Muscle tone
      • Muscles are in a state of slight tension even at rest
    • Movement
      • Extension
        • Muscles that starighten a limb
      • Flexion
        • Muscles that bend a limb
      • Adductors
        • Musles that move a limb towards the body
      • Rotation
      • Abductors
        • Muscles that move the limb away from the body
    • Muscle contractions
      • Isometric
        • Force produced without movement
          • e.g tug of war or a rugby scrum
      • Isotonic
        • Force produced with movement
          • Concentric
            • Muscle shortens
          • Eccentric
            • Musle lengthens under tension as a breaking action
    • Effectsof exercise on the muscular system
      • Short term
        • Muscle temperature increases
        • Fibres in the working muscles increase
        • Muscles take up more oxygen from the blood
        • Blood flow to the working musces is increased
        • Muscles contract more often and more quickly
      • Long term
        • Hypertrophy
          • Increase in muscle size
        • Increases in muscular strength and power
        • Muscles can work harder for longer
        • Muscles can cope with fatigue better by coping with lactic acid and oxygen debt (muscular endurance)
        • Strengthening muscles around a joint improves stability
    • Atrophy
      • Reduction in muscle mass

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