The Muscular System

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  • The Muscular System
    • Voluntary/Skeletal Muscles
      • Under your control.
      • Majority of the muscles in your body.
      • e.g. biceps, triceps and hamstrings.
    • Cardiac Muscle
      • Every heart beat is a muscular contraction.
      • Found only in the walls of the heart.
      • Cannot control.
      • Works constantly and automatically.
    • Involuntary/Smooth Muscles
      • Walls of the arteries and the blood vessels.
      • Cannot control.
    • Names of the Voluntary Muscles
      • Trapezuis
      • Deltoids
      • Triceps
      • Pectorals
      • Biceps
      • Quadriceps
      • Gastrocnemuis
      • Abdominals
      • Latissimus dorsi
      • Gluteals
      • Hamstring
    • Muscle Movements
      • Agonist: the muscle that initially contracts to start a movement.
      • Insertion: the end of the muscle attached the bone that moves.
      • Antagonist: the muscle that relaxes and allows a movement to take place.
      • Origin: the end of the muscle attached to the fixed bone.
      • Belly: the middle part of the muscle that changes size.
    • Muscle Actions
      • Flexors: these are the muscles that bend a limb at a joint by contracting e.g. biceps when bicep curling.
      • Extensors: these are the muscles that work with and against the flexors and straighten a limb at a joint by contracting e.g. triceps when bicep curling.
      • Adductors: these are the muscles that move a limb towards the body.
      • Abductors: the paired muscles for adductors, which move a limb away from the body.
    • Muscle Fibres
      • Fast twitch
        • Contract quickly.
        • Tire quickly.
        • Have poor oxygen supply.
        • Bigger, stronger than slow twitch.
        • Anaerobic activities.
      • Slow twitch
        • Contract slowly.
        • Tire slowly.
        • Have good oxygen supply.
        • Work for longer periods of time.
        • Aerobic activities.
    • Muscle Contractions
      • Isometric: force produced without movement.
      • Isotonic: force produced with movement.
        • Concentric: muscle shortens(most common).
        • Eccentric: muscle lengthens.
    • The Major Muscle Groups
      • Triceps: straightens the arm at the elbow.
      • Biceps: bends the arm at the elbow.
      • Gluteus Maximus: straightens the thigh at the hip.
      • Gastrocnemius: raises the body into the toes.
      • Achilles: transmits the power of the calf muscle to the foot.
      • Deltoids: pulls the outstretched arms together in front of the body.
      • Pectoroalis Major: raises the arm away from the side.
      • Abdominals: flexes the trunk forward.
      • Quadriceps: bends the leg at the knee.
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