geography mind map

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  • Created by: James
  • Created on: 08-05-13 11:34
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  • The main global organisations affecting development
    • The World Trade Organisation
      • Set up in 1955 as a permanent organisation with far greater powers than its predeccessor GATT
      • Todays average tariffs are only a tenth of what they were when GATT started in 1947
      • Exists to promote free trade
      • Most countries in the world are members
    • The World Bank
      • Borrows between $20 billion and $30 billion a year in a variety of currencies
      • Has provided funding for over 4,000 development projects in 130 countries
      • Lending is at market rates of interest
      • In 1960 a branch of the World Bank was formed, known as the International Development Agency
      • The IDA lends only to nations with low income per capita - these loans are interest free
    • Transnational corporations
      • The driving force behind economic globalisation
      • Capitalist enterprises that engage in foreign direct investment
      • As the rules on regulating the movement of goods and investment have been relaxed, they have expanded their global reach
      • TNCs have substantial influence on the global economy in general and on the countries in which they choose to operate
    • Governments
      • Major players in the global economy
      • Exert their influence through national policies and membership of major international organisations
      • Tackling the development gap seems to be a high priority for some countries but not so much for others
    • Non-governmental organisations
      • Examples
        • Oxfam
        • CARE
        • CAFOD
        • WaterAid
      • The role of NGOs in development has increased because
        • They have developed considerable expertise over a number of decades in many different countries
        • They have a more successful track record in promoting development
        • They concentrate on small AND medium scale projects that benefit the poor rather than the better off in LEDCs
        • They work with local people to sustain development in the long term
        • They are seen to be independent of vested interests
    • The international monetary fund
      • Deals mainly with internal investment projects
      • UN Agency
      • Countries apply for funding from the IMF when they are unable to obtain funding from other sources
      • IMF money is designed to prevent the disruption to the international financial system that would occur through a country failing to meet its commitments to other nations
      • Along with fnding, the IMF can also negotiate the terms of debt on behalf of nations in financial difficulties
  • The international monetary fund
    • Deals mainly with internal investment projects
    • UN Agency
    • Countries apply for funding from the IMF when they are unable to obtain funding from other sources
    • IMF money is designed to prevent the disruption to the international financial system that would occur through a country failing to meet its commitments to other nations
    • Along with fnding, the IMF can also negotiate the terms of debt on behalf of nations in financial difficulties
  • Examples
    • Oxfam
    • CARE
    • CAFOD
    • WaterAid

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