BOOK 11

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  • The land of the dead
    • Circe tells them that their journey will start through the land of the dead
      • she summons up a wind to help them on their journey
        • they sail till they reach the banks of the river of Ocean where they moor
      • Odysseus pours a libation to the dead containing honey, milk, sweet wine, water and sprinkles of barley
        • he then prays to the dead that he will get back to Ithaca safely
          • if he does then he will build a barren heifer and make Tiresias a separate offering of the finest jet- black sheep
    • Odysseus takes the sheep, cuts their throats and pours the blood into the trench
      • once drunken by the sprits they will be able to talk to him
      • he then sacrifices the rest of the sheep to the Gods Hades and Persephone
        • this attracts sprits
    • Elphenor
      • Odysseus left in s rush and forgot to give Elphenor proper burial rites
      • Odysseus says he will give him proper burial rites when he returns to Aeaea
    • Teirsias
      • he tells his that a God will obstruct his nostos
        • Poseidon will keep on punishing him for blinding his son
      • him and his men may reach Ithaca but not without suffering
        • especially if he can't control his men's appetites
      • if he leaves the cattle alone then there is a chance he will reach Ithaca
        • if he hurts the cattle's then his, ship company and nostos will be destroyed
          • he then ay manage to escape but will reach Ithaca alone. late, in a wretched state ad he will find trouble n his home
      • he will need to get rid of the suitors by outwitting them
      • he must then try and prove himself worth to Poseidon
        • he should do this by traveling till he finds a place that thinks an oar is a 'winnowing-fan'
          • he must then plant the oar in the earth and offer a ram as a sacrifice to Poseidon
      • Odysseus will die peacefully of old age surrounded by prosperous people
    • Anticleia then drank the blood
      • poignant moment. Odysseus didn't realise his mother was dead
        • she dies of heartache for her son
      • tells him patient Penelope s and how noble his son is
      • Laertes longs for his sons nostos
        • in summer he sleeps on a pile leaves o high ground so that he can see if Odysseus is returning
      • he tries to embrace his mother three times but each time he fails to do so
    • Tyro
      • wife of Aeolus's son
      • feel in love with the river God Enipeus
        • Lord Poseidon pretended to be Enipeus and slept with her
          • 9 months later she gave birth to Pelias and Neleus
            • ' a Gods love is never fruitless'
            • they became servants of Zeus
    • Antiope
      • she had two sons who founded Thebes, the city of the seven Gates
    • Oedipus' mother then drank the blood
      • Oedipus killed his father and took his mother for a bride
      • Epicaste then hung herself
    • Chloris
      • she had a daughter called Pero
      • her husband said that any man could marry their daughter if the could drive all the cattle away from Phylace
      • one man attempted but was imprisoned
      • one years later he was freed
    • leda
      • mother of Castor and Polydeuces
      • these children spent half their time in the real world and the other half the in the land of the dead
      • they were treated like Gods
    • Iphimedia
      • she slept with Poseidon and had twins called otus and Ephiates
        • they were the tallest men on earth
      • her sons threated to go to war with the gods
        • but Hermes killed them
          • Hermes then got given the name 'Hermes the giant slayer'
    • Odysseus says its time for bed
      • Alcinous asks him to continue, he would rather hear the story than to sleep
    • Persephone drove away all the female spirits
    • Agamemnon
      • when he returned from try he was asked to Aegithus' palace
      • he was killed and then Clytemnestra his wife killed his lover Cassandra at his side
      • feels you can't be trustful of even your wife
      • compliments Penelope for being 'wise'
      • advises him to sail openly to Ithaca and to approach in secret
    • Achilles
      • Odysseus praises him for how  on earth he is honoured as if he was a god
      • Achilles hates the land of the dead as it  lacks Kleos
      • Odysseus tell him how noble his son is
        • in the Trojan horse many of the men were terrified but he didn't tremble once
    • Ajax
      • Odysseus defeated him for the arms of ajax
      • he apologies for defeating him and sending him to his grave
      • Odyseeus blames Ajax's doom on zeus
      • Ajax is still embittered and walks away
    • punishments
      • Titysus
        • a pair of vultures plucked at his liver for eternity
      • Tantatus stood in a pool of water
        • every time he went to drink the water the pool dried up
        • There was also a tress hanging over the pool with fresh fruit that were just out of reach
      • Sisyphus pushed a boulder up a hill and every time he got close to the top the rock would fall down the hill again

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