The Internet

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  • The Internet
    • Web addresses
      • http
        • protocol
      • domain name
      • area within the website - folder / directory
      • web page name
    • A worldwide network of devices
    • Web browser
      • software that lets the user access web pages
      • free to download
    • Data packets
      • sent between computers using protocols
      • pieces of data sent over a network
    • Models
      • client-server
        • web application is hosted on a server and accessed by client computers
      • peer to peer
        • all devices share responsibility and there is no central server
    • Fibre Optics
      • made from thin glass
      • Light is passed through the cable using a transmitter
      • sends light representing binary code
      • Adv
        • large quantities of cable can be joined together
        • Less interference than copper
        • less degeneration
      • Dis
        • expensive to replace
    • Copper cables
      • Electrical signals used to pass data
      • coaxial
        • degenerates over long distances
      • unshielded twisted pair
        • twisting copper cables around each other
      • shielded twisted pair
        • copper shielding around twisted wires
      • Adv
        • cheaper
        • still works if no power
      • Dis
        • degenerates over long distance
    • Broadband connections
      • Broadband = high speed internet connection
      • ADSL
        • asymmetric digital subscriber line
        • fast connection speeds
        • telephone line to receive / transmit data
      • Cable
        • copper cable and fibre optics
      • 3G / 4G
        • wireless
        • cellular phone network
    • Protocols
      • establish how 2 devices send and receive messages
      • handshaking
        • when two devices send messages to each other
      • Key points about a message
      • http
        • secure web address
        • encrypted
      • SMTP / POP3
        • email
        • used for communication with mail servers
        • SMTP = send POP3 = receive
      • FTP
        • transfer of large files
        • organises files on a web server
      • VOI
        • voice conversations over the internet
    • Streaming
      • compression reduces file sizes
    • modem
      • modulator-demodulator
      • connects computer to other nodes
    • TCP / IP
      • transmission control protocol /  internet protocol
      • set of protocols used over the internet
      • makes sure packets have correct info
        • source
          • which computer the message came from
        • destination
          • where message should go
        • packet sequence
          • the order the message data should be re-assembled
        • data
          • data in message
        • error check
          • to see data is sent correctly
    • Buffering
      • temporary storage space where data is held and processed.

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