influecne of childhood and adolescent experiences

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  • The Influence of Childhood and Adolescent experiences
    • Relationship with peers
      • Bee 1995
        • during adolescence time spent with parents is reduced
        • friendships become more intimate with higher disclosure of inner feelings and secrets
        • Bees believes that peers are important for the transition from the protected place within the family
      • Moore 1997
        • Attachment style to main primary giver will influence when young people start sexual relationships
        • 100 adolescents aged 14/15
          • measured attachments style using the adult attachment interview
          • asked close friend to assess the teens social acceptability
          • those who were classes as secure teenagers were less likely to engage in risky sexual activities eg unprotected sex
          • secure attachments help to prepare adolescents for adult sexual relationships
      • Madsen 2001
        • tested the effect of dating in adolescents on young adult romantic relationships
        • 180 adolescents
          • compared dating life at 15-17 on dating life 20-21
        • low frequency lead to more meaningful relationships in young adulthood
        • relationships in adolescence can be advantageous but too much can be maladaptive
    • parent-child relationships
      • The effect of abuse in childhood
        • Springer et al 2007
          • Individuals who have been abused are more likely to report increase rates of depression, anger, anxiety than non- abused individuals
        • Alpert et al 1998
          • childhood abuse who decrease their ability to trust and would feel isolated from other
        • Van de kosk and Fisher 1994
          • people who suffered childhood abuse had difficulty forming healthy attachments
      • deterministic
        • Kirk-Patrick and Hazan found that relationship breakdowns were associated with a shift from insecure to secure
        • can be positive
      • Simpson et al 2007
        • Longitudinal study
          • 25 years and 78 participants
        • parents reported attachment style at one years old
        • 6-8 teachers rated interaction with peers
        • 16 participants described their close relationships
        • as young adults their romantic partners were asked to describe their romantic experiences
        • those who were securely attached were more expressive and emotionally attached to their romantic partner
      • difficult to study due to ethical reasons
        • comparative study of a non human primate
        • Harlows, rhesus monkeys
          • monkeys with inadequate adult contact displayed inappropriate social and sexual behaviour as adults
      • Reductionist
        • Life events have a bigger impact
          • eg divorce/ illness of parents
          • Hamilton found that life events could move children from secure to insecure
      • Hazar and Shaver
        • wanted to test whether love in adulthood is directly related to the attachment type as a child
        • love quiz in their local North American News paper
          • quiz assessed current attachment styles and childhood attachment styles
        • two samples
          • one randomly selected from the newspaper
          • one of students with the mean age of 18
        • strong correlation securely attached lasted on average twice as long as insecure
          • lots of data
          • demand characteristics- social desirability
          • retrospective so relies on memory


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