Unit 2 Section 5.2 Immune System

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • The Immune System
    • Primary Defences
      • the body has a number of primary defences that help prevent pathogens and parasites from entering it. These include the skin and mucous membranes
        • The Skin
          • This acts as a physical barrier, blocking pathogens from entering the body. it also acts as a chemical barrier by producing antimicrobial chemicals and can lower pH, inhibiting the growth of pathogens.
        • Mucous membranes
          • These protect body openings that are exposed to the environment. some mucous membranes secrete mucus - a sticky substance that traps pathogens and contains antimicrobial enzymes
    • The Immune response
      • if a pathogen or parasite gets past the primary defences and enters the body, the immune system will respond.
      • an immune response is the body's reaction to a foreign antigen.
      • antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells
      • when a pathogen invades the body, the antigen on its cell surface are identified as foreign, which activates cells in the immune system
    • The main stages of the immune response
      • 1. phagocytosis
      • 2. T lymphocyte activation
      • 3. B lymphocyte activation and plasma production
      • 4. Antibody production
    • Cell signalling and the Immune response
      • cell signalling is basically how cells communicate
      • a cell may release a substance that binds to the receptors on another cell
      • this causes a response of some kind in the other cell
      • cell signalling is really important in the immune response because it helps to acitivate all the different types of white blood cells that are needed


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Health, illness and disease resources »