The ileum

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  • The ileum
    • Crypts of Leiberkuhn (within mucosa)
      • Intestional glands at bases of villi. Secrete mucus. Cell lining contin. dividing, pushed up bu division of cells deeper down.
        • Paneth cells are present at base of crypts. They defend actively dividing cells.
    • Goblet cells
      • Secrete mucus. Protect epithelumfor action of digestive enzymes
        • Lubricates lining as solid materials push along.
    • Villi (within the mucosa)
      • Increase surface area for absorp. Contain blood capiliaries into AA & monosacc. are absorp.
    • Colmunar Epithelum
      • Large surface area for digestion and absorption. substances taken up partly by diffusion + partly active transport.
        • Also pinocytosis. Mitochondria to provide ATP for active transport.
          • Replace reg.
    • Muscularis mucosa
      • Muscle fibres contract to cause movement of the villi.
        • Inhances concentration gradient
    • Submucosa
      • Contains Blood vessels including venules of heaptic portal vein
        • Supported by connective tissue
    • Mucularis externa
      • Circular muscle and longitudinal muscle both churn food.
        • Circular muscle pushes food along the gut my peristalisis.
    • Serosa
      • Protects and supports the gut.
  • Inhances concentration gradient


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