Holderness Coast Risks

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  • The Holderness Coast
    • Cliff Foot Erosion
      • Abrasion
        • Waves attack the base of the cliff. Material picked up from waves chip away at the base.
      • Hydraulic action
        • Advancing waves trap air inside cracks in the cliff, increasing air pressure.
          • Waves retreat, air explodes, joints weaken and cracks occur breaking up the cliff.
      • Corrosion
        • Cliffs formed from chalk or limestone. Acids in the sea dissolve the alkalis.
    • Cliff Face Processes
      • Weathering
        • Physical - Freeze Thaw
        • Biological - Seedlings germinate in cracks of cliff.
        • Chemical - Rainwater combining with CO2 or SO2 to form carbonic acid or sulphurous acid
      • Mass movement
        • Slumping - alternate wetting and drying of clay.
        • Slumped material collects at the base and is washed away by waves.
    • Fetch - currents add energy to waves.
      • Destructive waves eroding cliffs.

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