C4 - Group 1 elements

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  • The group 1 elements
    • Properties of alkali metals
      • React vigorously with water and give off hydrogen gas
      • The metal reacts with water to form an alkali - the hydroxide of the metal
      • Reactivity of the alkali metals with water increases down group 1
        • Potassium is more reactive than sodium
        • Sodium is more reactive than lithium
    • The group 1 metals are:
      • Lithium
      • Sodium
      • Potassium
      • Rubidium
      • Caesium
      • Francium
    • Explaining reactivity patterns
      • Atoms of group 1 have similar properties because they have one electron in their outer shell
      • Atoms of alkali metals react, losing one electron and forming:
        • A full outer shell, to create a stable electronic structure
        • An ion, which has one more positive charge in its nucleus than negative electrons in the shells, so it becomes a positive ion
      • The more shells the atom has the more weakly attracted the electrons are to the nucleus, so are easily lost
        • That is why atoms in the lower periods are more reactive than the ones in the higher periods
          • The easier it is for an atom to lose an electron the more reactive it is
        • The easier it is for an atom to lose an electron the more reactive it is
    • If electrons are lost, the process is called reduction
    • A flame test can be used to find out if lithium, sodium or potassium are present in a compound
      • Lithium burns red
      • Sodium burns yellow
      • Potassium burns lilac


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