German revolution

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  • The German Revolution
    • Economic and social tensions
      • SPD continued to grow
      • Power remained with the Kaiser and prussian Landowners
      • Junkers dominated the german state by holding army officers
      • Bismark sought to restrict SPD by repression and social reforms (both failed
      • Junkers resented the Reichstag and feared socialist revolutions
      • Europes economy grew
      • Proletariat suppored SPD who wanted political reform
    • Nationalism and Foreign Policy
      • Social darwinism- survival of the fittest. Strong parties survive, weak die.
      • Anti semitism- ruling elite,middle class. Influx from Russia of ostjuden
      • nationalism increased and sometimes in an aggressive form
      • German ruling class seen aggressive foreign policy as a way of gaining support from the working class
      • From 1890's the kaiser introduced Welpoltik foreign policy (overseas empire)
    • Reactions to war
      • majority rallied to their nation
      • Burgfrieden declared 'peace in our fortress'
      • SPD abandoned its internationalism to support the war
      • Govt acknowledged trade unions and working class leaders effort.. offered great rewards
      • People became divided
      • allies naval blockade caused food shortages and raw materials
      • Sept 1917 fatherland party formed- annexatonist war
      • Nationalists demanded siegfriede 'peace through victory' major land gains in the east, west and overseas
      • Govt dominated by ldorff and hburg
      • April 1917 radicals opposed war, broke with SPD and formed USPD
    • Military Defeat
      • Autumn 1917, supplies short
      • Lifeline: Communists invaded russia. 1918 russia accepted treaty of Brestlitovisk gaining territory for Germany
      • Ldorff- gambled a new offence
      • Allies- realised germany would be defeated and moved towards the frontier
      • Untitled


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