The genetic code/ mRNA translation

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  • The genetic code/ mRNA translation
    • Codons
      • AUG - methionine (initiation code)
      • UAA, UAG NGA encode no amino acids (stop /chain terminating/ nonsense codons)
      • Argine, leucine and serine all have 6 codons
      • Non-overlapping, degenerative,accommodates wobble base pairing
      • Proved to be triplet as 3 base shift caused main sequence to be correct
      • Nuremberg used in vitro translation with synthetic RNA molecules to discover the codes for which amino. Used this to mathematically work out the combinations
    • TRNA
      • Amino acids connect to tRNA via the carboxyl group binding to the ribose by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase using ATP
      • Each amino acid has a specific tRNA. The tRNA anticodon binds to the mRNA and releases amino acid in ribosome
      • The 5' base of the anticodon is not so tightly bound allowing some wobble
    • Amino acid
      • Each have a NH2, a carboxyl COOH, a hydrogen and an R.
      • Can be polar or non-polar and acidic or basic
      • Peptide bond
        • A condensationreaction catalysed by peptide transferase (a RNA enzyme (riboenzyme) that is part of the ribosome)
        • Peptide backbone same for all peptides in all proteins. N-C Terminus
    • Translation
      • Ribosome moves long mRNA one codon at a time. Empty tRNA falls off and new one added until stop codon then the ribosome falls off.

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