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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 05-02-15 11:37
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  • Genetics
    • Non overlapping
      • Base triplets don't share bases
    • Degenerate
      • More combinations of triplets than AAs
    • Universal
      • Same triplets code for same AAs in all living things
    • Transcription Factors
      • Different geners are expressed, different proteins produced and proteins modify cells
      • Move from cytoplasm into nucleus
        • Bind to specific DNA sites near start of target genes
          • Control rate of transcription
            • Activators= increase rate of transcription e.g help RNA polymerase bind to start of target gene and activate transciption
              • Repressors= Decrease rate of transcription, e.g bind to start of target gene preventing RNA polymerase from binding, stopping transcription
      • Oestrogen
        • Affects transcription by binding to a transcription factor called an oestrogen receptor
        • Complex moves from cytoplasm to nucleus and bind to specific DNA sites near the start of the target gene
          • Activator or repressor
            • Depends on type of cell and target gene
        • Levels affect rate of transcription
    • Small interfering RNA (siRNA)
      • Short, double stranded RNA, 20-25 nucleotides long
      • Interferes with gene expression
      • Bases are complementary to specific sections on a target gene and the mRNA that's formed from it
      • RNA interference- affects translation
        • siRNA and proteins bind to target mRNA
          • Proteins cut up mRNA into section so it can't be translated
            • Prevents gene expression as the protein can't be made in translation


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