The General Strike of 1926

This gives all the reasons fo the general strike of 1926.

Note to self: If in the exam the question is who can be seen as the most responsible for the general stike, follow the line that the government and mine owners can be seen as the main causes BUT that the role ofthe mine-owners holds more weighting as they were the people who were directly antagonising the trade unions and miners.

I hope this is useful

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  • Created by: Millie
  • Created on: 09-03-13 23:51
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  • The General Strike of 1926
    • Lord Sankey's Royal Commission of 1919
      • Said that Nationalization was the best option LG decided to return  the mines to private ownership
        • Miners had been given a taste of Nationalisation and now they were denied it<- in the eyes of the miners LG had exercised poor judgement,
          • However, the country was facing huge amounts of debt and cuts had to be made
        • V.significant
    • Winston Churchil
      • But Britain back on the Gold Standard in 1925.  Very significant perhaps more so than the  privatisation of the mines. He sorely overestimated  the value of the  pound. In April 1925 the pound was worth $4.86
        • Huge consequence was that  British exports were over-priced and uncompetitive and lcheaper foreign exports were favoured over British exports
          • British coal wasn't wanted!!
          • Attempts to  cut back on  costs, wages and led to industrial conflict
      • Baldwin made Churchil the editior of the British Gazette- official gov. newspaper. He called the general strike' a direct challenge to ordered government'. The gov. branded to strike 'unconstitutional' and called for an 'unconditional surrender of the strikers. 1926 - DURING THE STRIKE. V.significant as it caused the end of the strike , BUT rememeber that the TUC was running out of money so probs wouldn't have lasted much longer anyway
    • Untitled
    • Result: 1927 Trades Disputes Act. Political levy attacked. People would have to contract in -1/4 of  LABOUR'S funds were cut. ANY FUTURE GENERAL STRIKES WERE MADE ILLEGAL THROUGH THIS ACT
      • Baldwin's reputation  as moderate leader damaged
    • During the 1914-1918 war. The coal mining industry had been nationalized and was ubiquitously welcomed- conditions improved
      • Wages had also been standardized
      • Despite being exempted from conscription 40% of miners fought in the armed forces- Ll George had promised to  create 'a country fir for heroes to live in'- men were willing to fight because they believed their country was worth fighting for
        • Deep sense of betrayal and resentment created when this promise could n't be fulfilled .
    • The  Mine owners
      • They ill-treated the miners  even before the General Strike, which was the cause of  the  failed 1921 strike. If they had treated the miners better before, perhaps they would not have reacted in such an extreme manner
      • Mine owners announced that wages were to be reduced- 1921. Created an immediate  response.
        • 'Black  Friday 15th April 1921. Only occured because two major unions : the transport and rail unions decided not to support the miners in a strike
          • Consequence: miners had to accept lower wages
            • Much resentmeny
            • The very poor vs. the  very rich. Mine owners earned loads from  royalties.  UNFAIR.
        • MINE OWNERS SHOULD HAVE LEANRED FROM THIS AND REALISED THAT ANY FURTHER REDUCTIONS IN WAGES WOULD LEAD TO A STRIKE
          • End of June 1925 the miners announced that that wages were to be reduced + working day would be made longer . Caused an immediate reaction in Trade Unions and the  miners
            • The TUC promised to support the miners and a general strike seemed certain
              • The  TUC were responsible for calling the strike but cannot be blamed for causing it. The decided to strike because of the way they were being treated by the mine owners
            • 31st July-  'Red Friday'. Baldwin decided to give a £23 million pound subsidy to maintain the existing wage levels., while another  Royal Commission under  Sir  Herbert Samuel looked into he mining industry
              • NINE MONTHS TRUCE.  During this time the government made plans to  counter a future general strike.. The Government created the OMS. A list of volunteers who agreed to help the country in the event of a general strike- consisted of 30 000 volunteers. The Gov. had also made provisions for food and fuel.
                • SEVERELY UNDERMINED THE STRIKE as their was no 'great halt'
                  • The  Gov. cannot be vituperated for this as they were simply doing their job of  trying to  maintain order in the country
                  • The miner  owners  hold more responsibility as they had not headed the warning of the 1921 'strike' . They were the people who were directly aggravating the trade unions and miners
                • Samuel report of 1926- called for for re-organization of the coal industry, better working conditions, no lengthening of the working day- but also called for wage reductions. MINE OWNERS AND UNIONS DIDN'T ACCEPT THIS
                  • Mine owners put up lock out notices
                  • GENERAL STRIKE: 3rd may 1926. Lasted 9 days. 2- 3 million workers went on strike. on the 12th of May the TUC leaders backed down
                    • During the nine days of strike the Government had spent £433 million. The TUC had only spent 4 million, which was hard to achieve
                    • The  British gazette newspaper. REFER: to Winston Churchill for more details on how this ended the strike
      • End of June 1925 the miners announced that that wages were to be reduced + working day would be made longer . Caused an immediate reaction in Trade Unions and the  miners
        • The TUC promised to support the miners and a general strike seemed certain
          • The  TUC were responsible for calling the strike but cannot be blamed for causing it. The decided to strike because of the way they were being treated by the mine owners
        • 31st July-  'Red Friday'. Baldwin decided to give a £23 million pound subsidy to maintain the existing wage levels., while another  Royal Commission under  Sir  Herbert Samuel looked into he mining industry
          • NINE MONTHS TRUCE.  During this time the government made plans to  counter a future general strike.. The Government created the OMS. A list of volunteers who agreed to help the country in the event of a general strike- consisted of 30 000 volunteers. The Gov. had also made provisions for food and fuel.
            • SEVERELY UNDERMINED THE STRIKE as their was no 'great halt'
              • The  Gov. cannot be vituperated for this as they were simply doing their job of  trying to  maintain order in the country
              • The miner  owners  hold more responsibility as they had not headed the warning of the 1921 'strike' . They were the people who were directly aggravating the trade unions and miners
            • Samuel report of 1926- called for for re-organization of the coal industry, better working conditions, no lengthening of the working day- but also called for wage reductions. MINE OWNERS AND UNIONS DIDN'T ACCEPT THIS
              • Mine owners put up lock out notices
              • GENERAL STRIKE: 3rd may 1926. Lasted 9 days. 2- 3 million workers went on strike. on the 12th of May the TUC leaders backed down
                • During the nine days of strike the Government had spent £433 million. The TUC had only spent 4 million, which was hard to achieve
                • The  British gazette newspaper. REFER: to Winston Churchill for more details on how this ended the strike

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