- What was the “Frankfurt School”? Use examples to discuss ways in which theorists associated with the Frankfurt School explained developments in methods of social control.
of Social Research, Frankfurt, Germany, established in 1923- Marxist orientated research centre
theorists: Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer
and Herbert Marcuse
- Institute was shut down when Hitler came to power and they moved to America to continue, and returned to Germany after the war.
- •Core theorists: Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse
of the Enlightenment
- •Argued that the Enlightenment produced an opposite outcome to that intended
and rationality has been suppressed, through the role of mass media, political
institutions, education systems, etc.
- Leads to suppression of dissent, when a group suppresses the individual thoughts and ideas of another opposing group
and social control
- Frankfurt School saw the control of
technology as an important source of social control
- •Technology “"mode of organizing and perpetuating social relationships, a manifestation of prevalent thought and behaviour patterns, an instrument for control and domination“ •Marcuse (1941) ‘Some Social Implications of Modern Technology’
- •Particular focus on the use of technology in producing mass culture
- Frankfurt School saw the control of technology as an important source of social control
production of culture
- •Standardisation (same components) •Pseudo-individualisation •(e.g. Popular music, Hollywood movies) stylistically different, same function •Rationalisation of promotion and distribution
- •Institute of Social Research, Frankfurt, Germany, established in 1923- Marxist orientated research centre