The First Crusade

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 23-03-14 12:33
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  • The First Crusade
    • Splits in Christendom
      • Byzantine Empire
        • Byzantine Emperor (Alexios I) is leader of land. Byzantine Patriarch is leader of Church
          • Constantinopole
      • Latin/Catholic Church
        • Holy Roman Emperor + Pope
          • Rome (Pope lives in the Vatican)
      • Armenia - disliked for their different practices
      • Split between Spiritual and Temporal power
    • Splits in Muslim World
      • Sunni Empire
        • Abbasid Caliphate
          • Baghdad (have control of Jerusalem)
          • Caliph
      • Shi'ah Empire
        • Fatimid Caliphate
          • Cairo (by 969 have taken Jerusalem)
          • Caliph
    • Why was it called in 1095?
      • Aid Byzantines
        • No
      • Ending Feudal Anarchy
  • Split between Spiritual and Temporal power
  • 1054 - The Great Schism. Pope finds B's don't teach Purgatory, Excommunicated
  • Seljuk Turks, expand, 1040: took Persia and Afghanistan, 1055: take Baghdad
    • Sunni Empire
      • Abbasid Caliphate
        • Baghdad (have control of Jerusalem)
    • 1070 - at height of power led by Alp Arslan Malikshah
  • 1074 Gregory wanted to help after Battle of Manzikert
  • Yes
    • Aid Byzantines
      • No
    • 1074 Gregory wanted to help after Battle of Manzikert
    • 1094 Alexius I asks for help against Seljuks
  • Gregory abandons plans to help to deal w/German Emperor Henry VI
    • Latin and Greek Church not united
      • 1054 - The Great Schism. Pope finds B's don't teach Purgatory, Excommunicated
    • Yes
      • Ending Feudal Anarchy
      • Byzantines fight against Rome 1040, Pope supports Normans against Byzantine Emperor - lack of unity
    • 1085 Henry VI takes revenge on Pope + attacks Rome
      • Yes
        • Byzantines fight against Rome 1040, Pope supports Normans against Byzantine Emperor - lack of unity
    • No
      • Crusade will convert Muslim lands
        • No
        • United Christendom will increase Pope's power
          • Increase Pope's power
            • Why was it called in 1095?
            • Yes
              • Increase Pope's power
                • Pope Urban II is new and lacks power - forced into position by Normans
              • Henry VI recently attacked Rome in 1084
                • Yes
                  • Pope Urban II is new and lacks power - forced into position by Normans
              • No
                • By launching crusade, Pope regains control over B Emperor
                  • No
                  • Unites warring groups in Europe due to war with Turks
                    • Ultimately gives power back over Christendom
                      • By launching crusade, Pope regains control over B Emperor
                        • Unites warring groups in Europe due to war with Turks
                        • Causes
                          • War between Muslims + Christians around Jerusalem - Seljuks suddenly took over and dislike Christians
                            • Causes
                            • Why did people join?
                              • The First Crusade
                                • Splits in Christendom
                                  • Byzantine Empire
                                    • Byzantine Emperor (Alexios I) is leader of land. Byzantine Patriarch is leader of Church
                                      • Constantinopole
                                  • Latin/Catholic Church
                                    • Holy Roman Emperor + Pope
                                      • Rome (Pope lives in the Vatican)
                                  • Armenia - disliked for their different practices
                                • Splits in Muslim World
                                  • Shi'ah Empire
                                    • Fatimid Caliphate
                                      • Cairo (by 969 have taken Jerusalem)
                              • Knights, lesser nobles and infantry
                            • Noble leaders
                              • Why did people join?
                                • Knights, lesser nobles and infantry
                              • Wanted to protect the Holy Lands and set an example
                            • Salvation as well as a good opportunity to gain more land. Knights etc. wanted to fight - re-direct their violence for good
                              • People's Crusade
                                • Wanted salvation, some don't have too much to live for and not much to give up. Ergotism = disease that causes vision (maybe of God?)
                                  • People's Crusade
                                  • Why did People's Crusade fail?
                                    • Not united - splits between German and French factions
                                    • Don't wait for rest of crusader knights
                                  • Lack of military training equipment/money
                                    • Why did People's Crusade fail?
                                      • Not united - splits between German and French factions
                                      • Don't wait for rest of crusader knights
                                  • Some more focused on 'enemy at home' ie Jews. Often loot people.
                                    • Lack of clear leadership - Peter H does not join them in Anatolia (this causes the other failures)
                                      • Why did the First Crusade succeed in 1099?
                                        • Muslim forces weren't prepared for size etc of crusaders
                                        • Lulled into false sense of security by First Wave
                                        • Muslim disunity ie Arabs vs Turks and Fatamids vs Abbasids
                                      • Urban's call = successful in getting varied group of knights etc
                                        • Why did the First Crusade succeed in 1099?
                                          • Muslim forces weren't prepared for size etc of crusaders
                                          • Lulled into false sense of security by First Wave
                                          • Muslim disunity ie Arabs vs Turks and Fatamids vs Abbasids
                                      • Religious zeal united the different crusading groups
                                        • Help from Italian Sea Powers

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