The first and second civil wars

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  • The first and second civil wars
    • Main battles
      • 1642 EDGEHILL inconclusive
      • 1643 NEWBURY inconclusive
      • 1644 MARSTON MOOR Parliament victory
      • 1645 NASEBY Royalists defeated (war peters out)
    • Parliament's control of key areas
      • London + Southeast
        • Charles would have to capture London to win the war
        • London had the most effective militia
        • Wealthy areas - giving Parliament a large tax base
      • Seaports + Navy
        • Could keep trading going
        • Kept out possible foreign allies for Charles
        • Kept their own ports safe + had easy access to Royalist's
    • Nature of warfare
      • Became series of regional conflicts - sieges, storming of towns etc
      • Royalist advances on London would have to be slow
        • especially after failure of three pronged attack on Southeast in 1643
    • Parliament's war effort
      • Raising money + supplies became more systematic during war
      • Weekly assessments enforced (tax on land) + 1643 excise ordinance (sales tax)
    • New Model Army
      • Fairfax = commander in chief, Cromwell = cavalry leader
      • 'war winning army' founded 1645
        • Responsible for victory at Naseby
      • Soldiers got regular pay + promoted according to ability not nobility
    • Self-defying ordinance
      • Parliament could get rid of commanders unable or unwilling to defeat King
    • Prince Rupert's failures
      • Brilliant cavalry commander but failed at Edgehill and Marston Moor
        • Royalists had no reserve cavalry to back up his successes
    • Parliament's superior allies
      • 1643 signed 'Solemn League' and Covenant with Scots
        • Scot's army of 20,000 infantry + 3,000 cavalry arrived Jan. 1644
        • Scots captured 1/3 Royalist land in North
        • 1646 - Charles surrendered to Scots at Newark
      • Charles' aid = military aid from Irish Catholics
        • Not as well trained + help promote idea of Catholic conspiracy
        • Only 6,000 infantry arrive
    • Second civil war 1648
      • Charles sparked this by setting his enemies up against eachother
      • 1648 - Parliament voted to restart negotiations with Charles
        • planned to bring him back to London
        • Army took control - Dec 2648 = Pride's Purge
          • Army leadership put Charles on trial Jan 1649

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