A: The Fall Of The Second Reich

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: BeccaEK
  • Created on: 20-04-15 19:07
View mindmap
  • The Fall of the Second Reich
    • Threats from extreme left and right
      • Main threat was repeated attacks from internal enemies to left and right
      • Greater threat from right wing nationalism
        • They despised new democracy
      • End of 1918 - great threat = Spartacist uprising
        • Luxemburg + Liebkneckt murdered 15th Jan 1919
        • Ebert supported + supplied army against them
          • Uprising poorly planned + crushed by Freikorps
    • Founding of Weimar Republic
      • January 1919 - elections for National Assembly
        • Met in Weimar - Berlin thought unsafe
        • Hard for 1 party to get majority
        • Used proportional representation
    • Weimar Constitution
      • Main points
        • Chancellor + cabinet needed majority support in Reichstag
        • Germany split into 18 lander
        • President elected on 7 year cycle
          • Article 48 - President could suspend Parliament + run by decree in emergancy
        • 2 houses = Reichsrat + Reichstag
        • Freedom of speech
      • Impact
        • Successful constitutional practice
          • But misused by Republic's opponents
        • Proportional representation led to many coalition governments
          • Accepted by most across political spectrum
        • 2 presidents = Ebert + Hndenburg
    • Treaty of Versailles
      • Germany forced to give up much of its territory - 13% of that possessed pre-war
      • War Guilt clause
      • Reparations fixed at £6.6million
      • Left Germany humiliated + scarred
        • Forced to sign
          • Threatened with military action if they didn't
    • Threat from the right
      • Kapp Putsch
        • Many within army supported the putsch
          • Defeated by general strike of trade unions
        • After this, Freikorps were disbanded
    • Ruhr crisis
      • French cut the Ruhr off from rest of Germany
        • To finance striking workers, government printed more money
          • Hyperinflation became worse
        • Passive Resistance used in response
          • Called off by Stresemann - introduced the Rentenmark
    • Munich Putsch
      • 8th Nov 1923 SA forced Von Kahr into supporting march on Berlin
        • Once they left the building he retracted his support
      • 9th Nov 1923 3000 Nazis marched on Munich
        • Police blocked their way
          • Shots fired - 16 Nazis + 3 policemen killed
          • Hitler ran away but arrested several days later
            • Sentenced to 5 years in Feb 1924
              • Only served 9 months
        • Failed as Hitler delayed too long
      • Results
        • Hitler used his trial for propaganda
        • Convinced Hitler Nazis could not rule by violence alone
    • Stresemann years 1924-1929
      • Foreign policy
        • DAWES PLAN 1924 Germany to receive foreign aid of 800 million marks
        • LOCARNO TREATY Germany + neighbours not to use force on eachother
        • LEAGUE OF NATIONS 1926 Germany admitted
        • TREATY OF BERLIN 1926 neutrality of Germany + Soviet Union
        • YOUNG PLAN 1929 debt to be 2000 million Reichmarks to be paid yearly until 1988
        • Enabled Germany to regain diplomatic influence
      • Economy
        • Significant monetary stability
          • Important after hyperinflation
        • Foreign capital from USA
    • Role of the SPD
      • 1924-1928 resisted becoming part of a coalition
        • Despite this, they were largest party
        • Thought it would compromise their ideals
      • Rejected political reponsibility

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Germany: Nationalism resources »