The Earth - C1 Revision

Mindmap on chapter 7 of Chemistry Unit 1 AQA.

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  • The Earth - C1 Revision
    • Structure
      • Inner Core
        • High proportion of the magnetic metals nickel and iron.
          • Outer Core
            • Liquid
        • Solid
      • Mantle
        • Almost entirely solid but parts can flow very slowly
      • Outer Core
        • Liquid
      • Crust
        • Solid and thin
      • The Earth is spherical with a diameter of about 12800km
    • Restlessness
      • Tectonic Plates - earth's crust and upper part of the mantle are cracked
        • Move a few centimeters a year because of CONVECTION CURRENTS
          • Energy released by the decay of radioactive elements heating up the mantle causes convection currents
        • Where the plates meet, huge forces build up making rocks give way, change shape or move - this causes earthquakes, volcanoes or mountains to form
        • ALFRED WEGENER
          • Put forward the idea of CONTINENTAL DRIFT in 1915
          • Other scientists did not accept his ideas because he could not explain why continents moved - they believed the earth was shrinking as it cooled
    • Atmosphere
      • The earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago
        • 1.  In the first billion years the surface was covered with volcanoes that released carbon dioxide, water vapour and nitrogen
        • 2. When the earth cooled, most of the water vapour condensed to form the oceans
        • 3. In the nest 2 billion years bacteria, algae and plants evolved . Oxygen increased
    • Life on Earth
      • Plants that produced the oxygen in the atmosphere probably evolved from simple organisms.
      • We do not know how the simple things were formed but many scientists have suggested theories of how life began.
      • MILLER-UREY  EXPERIMENT
        • In 1952 two scientists, Miller and Urey did an experiment of what they thought was in the early atmosphere
        • They used a mixture of water, ammonia, methane, hydrogen and a high voltage spark to stimulate lightening.
        • After a week they found that amino acids had been produced.
      • One theory suggests that these organic molecules formed a 'primordial soup' and that the amino acids in this mixture combined to make proteins from which life began.
    • Gases in the Atmosphere
      • Carbon dioxide – 0.04%
        • Plants took up much of the carbon dioxide in the Earth’s early atmosphere. Animals ate the plants and much of the carbon ended up in sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels.
        • Dissolves in the oceans and some probably formed insoluble carbonate compounds that were left on the seabed and became sedimentary rocks.
      • Oxygen - 21%
      • Nitrogen -  78%
      • Argon - 0.9%
      • Traces of other gases
      • Separating the gases in the air
        • The gases in the air have different boiling points and so can be separated from liquid air by fractional distillation.
  • ALFRED WEGENER
    • Put forward the idea of CONTINENTAL DRIFT in 1915
    • Other scientists did not accept his ideas because he could not explain why continents moved - they believed the earth was shrinking as it cooled

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