The Early Cold War Years

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  • Created by: emily997
  • Created on: 26-01-14 11:19
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  • The Early Years of the Cold War
    • competition between US and USSR
      • Constant political conflict between the two superpowers as both tried to spread their influence globally and promote their own political and economic systems
      • Economic compeition
        • Both sides gave financial aid to less-developed countries especially Africa and Asia to gain their support
      • Huge spending by both sides on armed forces so to gain advantage over rival
        • the Arms Race
        • US developed atomic bomb in 1945 and USSR tested own in 1949
          • continued to both develop more destructive  bombs
            • and missile systems to deliver them across the world
              • US developed atomic bomb in 1945 and USSR tested own in 1949
                • continued to both develop more destructive  bombs
                  • and missile systems to deliver them across the world
      • "Buffer Zone" Eastern Europe Stalin
        • Stalin wanted to strengthen and secure USSR after 1945
        • By 1948 Hungary, Bulgaria,Romania, Poland,Czechoslovakia
          • and East Germany = under control of Soviet-supported communist governments
        • Spread of communism in Eastern Europe worried many Americans
          • Thought that USSR would push more countries into communism
          • President Truman's foreign policy dedicated to stopping other countries turning communist
      • The Berlin Blockade 1948-1949
        • Berlin = old German capital, deep inside Soviet-controlled East Germany
          • Divided into western half = US, Britain and France. Eastern half = USSR
            • June 1948
              • Stalin blocked access into West Berlin to force Western powers out however they used planes to drop supplies to the West Berliners
              • USSR didn't want to risk a war so didn't shoot the planes down
        • Stalin accepted defeat and blockade ended May 1949
          • USSR didn't want to risk a war so didn't shoot the planes down
      • US = confused Nationalism and Communism
        • US saw duty to stop any communist take over
          • Saw itself as leader of the free non-communist world
          • North Atlantic Treaty Organisation [NATO]
            • 1949; built military alliance to counter Soviet aggression (mainly in Europe)
        • US divided world into pro and anti communist
          • Meant they tended to overrate importance of communist elements in nationalist movements
            • Nationalist movements fighting for political independence from colonial rulers e.g. Britain and France

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