The Development of the Concerto Baroque through to 20th Century with reference to Ravel's piano concerto in G major

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  • The Development of the Concerto Baroque through to 20th Century with reference to Ravel's piano concerto in G major
    • THE BAROQUE CONCERTO
      • Introduction of the CONCERTO GROSSO. Where the concerto is for a group of soloists, the concertino, accompaniedby the ripieno group
      • Early Baroque used many short, dance like movements and suites (eg, work by Corelli)
      • Ritornello form was highly popular, with the entire orchestra playing the ritornello and the soloist(s) playing the episode, for example, in Vivaldi's Autumn from the Four Seasons
      • VIVALDI ESTABLISHED 3 MOVEMENT FORM FOLLOWED BY BACH
      • Bach pioneer of Baroque concertos
        • Bach wrote his brandenburg concertos for different groups of instruments
        • Brandenburg no 5 featured a huge harpsichord solo with virtuosic writing which inspired other s not only to write more for the keyboard instuments but to write a difficult solo passage for the soloist- THE CADENZA
      • Use of figured bass on Harpsichord and cycle of fifths
    • THE CLASSICAL CONCERTO
      • SOLO CONCERTO IS BORN
      • USE OF THEE MOVEMENTS, MODERATLEY FAST, SLOW, VERY FAST
        • 1st movement now in sonata form
        • Second movement in a different key
      • IInvention of the Piano is the death of the harpsichord
      • Piano concertos popular
      • Invention of clarinet
      • The CADENZA is now regular with composers leaving it for the soloists to improvise. Placed in at the end of the recapitulation
      • Orchestra introduces main themes before solist
      • 3rd movement in RONDO form
      • MOZART PIANO CONCERTO 21 SECOND MOVEMENT
        • Lh has 6/8 rocking effect like Ravel
        • Simple accesable writing for piano
        • Woodwind solos
        • Piano and orchestra seen as soloists
        • Slow melodic feel
    • ROMANTIC CONCERTOS
      • Long flowing melodies and big, swelling crecendos
      • Newer instruments and an expanding orchestra
      • Soloist and orchestra now seen as rivals, not equals
      • Cadanzas now written out and more virtuosic and demanding
      • Role of the soloist now much more technically damanding with extreme ranges of registar
      • Beethoven's the Emporor piano concerto- starts with a piano solo (cf Ravel mvt 2) solist and orchestra seen as rivals and orchestra has huge chords at fff
    • SEANSANS AND RAVEL
      • Was a  late romantic composer with new ideas
      • Piano concerto no 2 in G minor-
        • MVT 1 opens with piano solo like Beethoven's Emporer, rivalry between soloist and orchestra
        • Movement 2 is fast and dance like- BREAK FROM TRADITION. Has light piano writing like Ravel and includes woodwind solos and equality between soloist and orchestra LIKE RAVEL
      • Simple melodies and light toccata like piano writing

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